Fruit trees

Diagram of pruning pruning

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Among the large variety of fruit crops that are intended for cultivation in the garden, plums are among the most sought after. Their fruits are distinguished by excellent taste, richness and useful properties, while any difficulties with self-care are practically absent, which is important for novice gardeners and summer residents. You can achieve good yields in a short time, given a number of simple points. One of them is seasonal pruning pruning, which is carried out both in spring and in autumn.

The main purpose of the procedure is to form the crown, which significantly improves the decorative value of the culture and makes it a good addition to the garden. When conducting kronirovaniya gardener need to use spatial thinking and have some skills in handling the tree. Before you start an action, it is important to make sure that you can trim yourself without damaging the plant with careless actions. Also have to learn the techniques of upcoming events..

Ways to properly trim

Plum crops are characterized by a high growth rate, which is especially noticeable in young individuals. In one season, a tree can drive a very large number of shoots and become unrecognizable. From an aesthetic point of view, such a cluster of green shoots looks unattractive. In addition, a neglected crown prevents the normal penetration of sunlight to the fruit, as a result of which they begin to decrease in size, and the ripening period is significantly delayed. Also thickened wood much more exposed to monilioz and moth. Winter-hardy properties significantly deteriorate.

In order to prevent such a development of events, the plum sapling should be cut in time, starting to carry out such actions from planting. Pruning fruit trees may differ in purpose and species. Based on this, gardeners distinguish the following types of procedures:

  • Formative. It is carried out when courting the crown to create an aesthetic appearance,
  • Regulatory. Designed to maintain the satisfactory condition of the tree,
  • Rejuvenating Most often used for old plants that can not boast a good yield,
  • Recovery. The process removes dry and broken branches, which contributes to more productive growth and development,
  • Sanitary. Designed to eliminate affected or diseased shoots

Regardless of the type of trim, the procedure itself is performed in the following ways:

  1. Cut to the ring. In the process, the unnecessary branch is removed completely, while it is cut off not flush with the trunk, but at the border of thickening at the place of attachment of the shoot,
  2. Cut to the kidney. Most often it is used if you wish to specify the escape in the desired direction of growth and shorten the escape. You should choose a good living kidney and send it to the appropriate position. The extra part is better to remove the shears. Do this at an angle of 45 degrees so that the top of the slice is in line with the top,
  3. On the side escape. Reception is used only with a radical change in the shape and direction of growth. It also allows you to reject bad branches that do not give good fruit. In the process, all unnecessary shoots are removed, and only the most promising is left from the side branches,

What time to pruning and how to properly prune in the fall

Having decided on the basic principles of pruning, a novice gardener needs to clarify the appropriate time for the implementation of such an event. As a rule, people cut prunes in spring or autumn. Specific features and subtleties in such an action are determined by age and state of culture.

Pruning spring plum - very useful and effective event, because it is at this time that the tree easily transfers any “surgical operations”, receiving a good incentive for laying new flower buds. To say exactly when spring pruning is difficult, because exact dates depend on climatic and regional conditions. It is important that the procedure be performed in a warm season before the development of the kidneys.

If several plums with different ages are grown in your garden, the first thing to do is to cut off the old individuals, since their flower buds wake up much earlier than young ones.

As for pruning in the fall, it is better to make it in September or early October (The exact date depends on the region and the state of the tree). It is important that culture completely dropped the foliage and went into hibernation.

Conducting different types of trimming activities, you should use different tools. In addition, the cut points are thoroughly washed with fungicidal solutions or alcohol, after which they are wiped with a clean cloth.

Correct removal of branches in the autumn period

Many novice gardeners often ask the question: "Is there any sense to cut the plum in the fall?". Opinions of different persons differ, but nevertheless, pruning for preventive and sanitary purposes will never be superfluous.

At the same time, so that the action does not harm the culture, it must be carried out with extreme caution and care. Known that autumn cuts are bad tightened, which is determined by the physiological properties of the tree. Poor healing is associated with the suspension of the growth of cambial cells, which form near the wound the so-called influx - callus. It is in autumn that the tree is cleared of all broken branches and damaged elements.

If you picked the wrong time for pruning and made it too late, most likely, the probability of infection will increase significantly. In addition, there will be a risk of draining the cut point, as a result of which the plant will not be able to stock up on the necessary forces for the upcoming wintering.

Based on such features, experts advise pruning plums in the spring, with the exception of mandatory sanitary measures and the elimination of damaged branches.

How to cut the plum in another time of year

It is known that summer pruning is a dangerous phenomenon for most fruit crops. However, the plum responds normally to contact with a sharp instrument, so the June "haircut" does not hurt her. If you intend to prune a tree in summer, then remember that you can only do the following procedures:

  • get rid of the frozen shoots, which, for some reason were missed in the spring,
  • get rid of the so-called "tops" - fattening shoots, which often develop in adults,

Throughout the summer season it is recommended to monitor the state of the plum and identify various infectious manifestations. In case there are signs of infection on a branch, prune it as soon as possible.

Properly performed summer pruning will achieve two goals:

  • stop the spread of a dangerous disease to other fruit crops,
  • reduce the mandatory need for autumn sanitization,

In recent years, in the practice of novice gardeners appears and pruning winter pruning. Of course, it would be correct to call it winter-spring, since action can be carried out only at the end of winter or in the early days of the first spring month.

Winter pruning is popularized due to the instability of climatic conditions, as a result, the tree can wake up too early.

If we talk about this type of pruning activities, they are carried out in the same way as in the spring. By the way, winter pruning pruning boasts some advantages. One of them is the safety of the procedure, since at the end of winter, the cambium fits snugly to the tree, which helps prevent unexpected damage to important parts.

Winter pruning will be useful only in a temperate climate zone. You should not start it, if the risk of night frosts, strong winds and frequent precipitation is still high.

Techniques and methods for proper pruning

Before you start shaping pruning, make sure you know what you are aiming for. First you need to have a basic understanding of a well-groomed tree. When cultivating non-columnar varieties, it is enough to arrange a neat tree, with one conductor and 4-5 branches, placed in a longline manner. As you place the diameters of the tiers decrease - the lower parts are larger than the upper ones. Only after you create a kind of “project” plum, you can begin to form the work.

Annual plum saplings are not yet starting to form branches, so this period is considered very favorable for any intervention. Begin to teach the tree to pruning procedures at an early age, determining the future growth of the plum.

That the tree grew compact and well-groomed, it can be cut to a height of 1-1.2 meters above ground level.

Two-year-olds already have side shoots, so they need to be carefully examined before pruning. If the center conductor is not prone to trimming, it should be shortened to the optimum height.

In the future, from the remaining lateral growths should be left the strongest and shorten them by 25-30 centimeters from the trunk. Similar skeletal branches will become the future frame of the crown. The cut is made on the lower bud, so that the branch begins to develop sideways, not up.

Young plums are trimmed immediately after planting and in the second year of life. In the process, from the side gains you need to choose the strongest and shorten them by 25-30 centimeters.

Forming activities for three and more adult plums

If the tree is already three years old, then its skeletal shoots begin to actively branch, so they can begin to cut. The procedure is performed as follows:

  • apical growths are cut to a length of 30 centimeters,
  • lateral - up to 15 centimeters,

Regardless of the type of sections, they are carried out on the lower kidney, which is necessary to determine the appropriate direction of growth. In this case, the crown can become light, not thickened, and enough sunshine will flow to each branch.

This type of treatment is considered the most convenient and productive. If the formation of the tree occurred in this way, then further care will be extremely simple. The following stages consist of a regulatory pruning, which is carried out annually to prevent a strong overgrowing of the crown.

In some cases, young plants produce competing for the central conductor escape. They are better cut, otherwise they will oppress others. In addition, gardeners are advised to get rid of the shoots that grow inside the crown, as well as vertical "tops."

If plum care is carried out regularly, you will not have to use a saw. In most cases, it is enough to use a reliable pruner.

Do not forget that every cut is an open wound and stress to the tree. It is important to close it with a garden bar in order to seal it. Such a procedure will prevent the tree from drying out and protect it from infection by various diseases.

Anti-aging pruning

It is known that plums can bear fruit for 15-20 years. However, this is not the limit. If you properly rejuvenate pruning, the tree will be able to give you a good harvest much further. In the process you need to be guided by this instruction:

  • Reduce the height of the crown. It is enough to cut the skeletal shoots at the top of the tree,
  • Remove thickening shoots. In this case, it is enough to get rid of all the branches directed to the center of the crown, or closely intertwined with each other. Also, do not forget about dry, weak and damaged branches,
  • Remove hanging shoots coming from the trunk or branches of the lower tier,
  • We shorten the skeletal branches, transferring the growth to good lateral shoots,
  • Remove unnecessary "tops",

It is known that plum reacts poorly to healing wounds in the amount of 5 centimeters. For this reason, it is not recommended to make too large cuts.

Pruning and shaping the plum may seem like a difficult action to a novice gardener. However, everything is much simpler. It is enough to consider a number key rules and follow the advice of professionals.

When to cut the plum: tips for beginners

Plum needs annual, systematic pruning, which will support the health and fruiting of the tree. To carry out such work is necessary according to the scheme - in spring, summer and autumn.

Spring is considered the most favorable for the procedure. Usually, gardeners prescribe such work at the end of March and the beginning of April, when the air temperature will be already warm, and the vegetative processes will not have time to begin.

In spring, young shoots are clearly seen on the plum, which grow in the wrong direction, and old branches, on which you should not wait for fruiting.

Summer, held in June, is indicative of the branches, thickening the crown, because they can best be seen in the presence of lush foliage.

Autumn spend in sanitary purposes. Such work is performed immediately after the leaf fall.

If the deadlines were missed, then it is better to move the pruning to fall, because the fresh place of the cut quickly freezes, and in its place gum therapy and frost is formed.

Each period has its own advantages and disadvantages, because of which a certain time of the year is suitable for the performance of certain works.

Some gardeners practice winter pruning plums, but this type of work is unusual and quite specific.

"Head garden" will tell you how to properly prune the plum:

In the spring: the correct formation of the crown

The first three years of plum life in spring it is necessary to form the correct shape of its crown, because it is the quality and volume of fruiting that depends on it. If you skip this work, the branches will grow randomly and erratically.

Usually for plums choose the crown, made in the form of a tier. That is, 6-8 of the most powerful and thick branches that grow at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from each other should act as the basis.

They should also be evenly distributed throughout the trunk, and the ideal growth angle should be 50 degrees.

To obtain such a crown, over the course of 3 years, the following actions have been performed:

    1. In the first year of life plums need to completely remove all the side branches, and cut the center conductor to a length equal to 60 centimeters.
    2. In the second year the central conductor is shortened by 40-50 centimeters, including the upper kidney, which should be above the cut point. The lower side branches are cut almost completely, leaving only 7-centimeter hemp. The remaining side shoots are shortened by a third of the total length.

  1. In the third year of life It is necessary to choose 6-8 skeletal branches, while all other shoots are removed. The remaining branches are allowed to leave no more than 4 buds.
Scheme spring pruning plum tree

Further spring pruning pruning will be in supporting the correct crown shape:

  • remove all incorrectly growing branches that grow inside the crown or are located at an obtuse angle,
  • if there is too lush crown, it will need to be thinned, while removing the old branches, on which the fruits will not be tied,
  • in order to help the plum to form new fruit branches, it is necessary to halve all last year's increments,
  • also in spring, a tree is inspected for all kinds of damage, most often at this stage the broken or frozen-out branches, which have suffered during the winter period, are removed.

Mandatory removal of those branches.on which the birds have damaged the kidneys.

Spring works are considered the most important and necessary, because this period is the most favorable and safe for the health of the tree.

Summer pruning pruned in June or July. This procedure is subject only to young trees, which only form their crown.

For adults, summer pruning can be disastrous and it is recommended to perform it only as a last resort, for example, when a disease is detected.

In the first year of life all branches are shortened to a length of 20 centimeters. Starting from the second year, extra branches are removed completely.

In the warm season there is a huge risk of infection with infectious diseases, so by spending the summer pruning you can protect the tree from such problems.

Autumn Pruning Scheme

Autumn pruning is carried out after leaf fall.when all vegetative processes end and the tree is at rest. Usually, such work is done in mid-September.

Autumn pruning is divided into three types and depends on the age of the tree:

  • in the first year after planting in the fall, the central conductor of the plum is shortened by one third of the total length, and the remaining branches by two thirds,
  • regulating - performed for trees of all ages. In the course of it, the crown is discharged, and all rapidly growing or incorrectly growing branches are removed,
  • starting from 4 years old tree, every 4-5 years, rejuvenating pruning is carried out, during which all old and unnecessary branches are removed, on which no fruiting occurs.
Autumn pruning is carried out in September, after leaf fall, before the onset of cold weather.

After the first fruiting, the autumn pruning is either not performed at all, or only the most problematic branches are removed.

Also an integral part of autumnal tree care will be Sanitary pruning, during which all diseased and damaged branches are removed., которые могут спровоцировать гибель всего дерева.

Срезанные ветви при этом рекомендуется собрать и сжечь, что бы инфекция или прочие возбудители и насекомые не распространились по всему участку.

Unusual methods

The specific methods of pruning pruning, the implementation of which differs from the standard work, include winter pruning and processing of old trees.

Winter pruning is rapidly gaining popularity among gardeners living in the southern regions.

The execution of such works is that all spring work transferred to mid-Februarybut at the same time the air temperature must be above 10-12 degrees.

Winter pruning is available only to gardeners who live in warm areas with a mild climate.

Winter pruning is available only to gardeners who live in warm areas with a mild climate.

Particular attention should be paid to pruning old trees.because they, just like older people, need careful and delicate care:

  • such works are performed in early spring, when the plant turns 12-15 years old,
  • pruning is usually stretched for 3-4 years so that the tree can gradually recover,
  • every year, to improve fruiting, they remove all dry and diseased shoots that excessively thicken the tree crown and prevent the formation of new branches,
  • throughout the rejuvenating period, all excess frame branches, whose average number should not exceed 8-10, are gradually removed. When performing such works, branches are filed from two sides in order to avoid unexpected breakage and to make the cut-off area smoother and more even.

Winter is a time to prune tree branches:

How to care for the tree after?

To make the plum as easy as possible to undergo the trimming procedure, for starters need to learn how to make the right cutswhich should be performed at an angle of 45 degrees, and the last kidney should be at a distance of 5-10 centimeters.

All such work should be done only with the use of sharp and disinfected garden tools, which include a knife, a saw and a pruner.

In order for the wounds in the tree to overgrow faster and not be subjected to various diseases, initially they are cleaned with a sharp knife and treated with blue vitriol. After that, smeared with garden pitch, oil paint or any other regenerating agents.

Pruning pruning is a rather complicated process only in the initial stages.while crown formation occurs. At a later date, all work is reduced to the regular removal of old, damaged or improperly growing branches.

Adding an article to a new collection

The formation of the plum crown is not easy and very important. If you cut the tree incorrectly, the crop will be poor. To avoid this, find out how and when pruning is done in the garden.

Pruning and shaping plums are carried out to increase fruiting. Thickened crown adversely affects the condition of the plant. The tree becomes sensitive to cold weather, in winter it risks freezing. The extra branches create a shadow and thus prevent the proper formation of the fruit.

Pruning young plums for the first time carried out at the time of planting the seedling, and then make it regularly throughout the life of the plant. In this case, the crown is formed up to about 15 years, and then only dry and diseased branches are removed, the young shoots do not touch. Then the tree bears good fruit, even in old age.

Pruning spring plum

The most important pruning of a plant comes in the spring. The tree is pruned in late March - early April, when the frosts had already passed, but the plant buds had not yet woken up and sap flow was not started. In the spring, all the frozen, damaged and improperly growing (inside the crown) branches are cut out on the ring, and the crown is thinned out and the last year growth is shortened by 1/3. It is on these shoots that the plum will bear fruit.

Pruning pruning scheme in spring

In the southern regions, the plum can be cut off at the end of February - beginning of March, but the air temperature should not be below 10 ° C.

How to remove unnecessary branches from the tree in the spring, shown in a very informative video pruning plum.

During the first 5 years they form a sparse-long crown. In the first year, the shtamba zone is measured on the seedling (40-60 cm from the ground), another 6-7 buds are counted above it and the apex is cut off. In the second year, the first tier is formed from the buds located above the trunk. On the tree leave 2-4 successfully located lower shoots extending from the trunk at an angle of at least 60 degrees. All shoots that appear in the shtamba area are regularly cut on the ring.

A year or two later, the second tier consisting of 1-2 branches (at a height of 20-30 cm from the upper branch of the first tier) is laid above the first tier. If necessary, a third tier of 1-2 branches is also formed above.

It is also possible to form a crown in the form of a bowl. At the same time leave 3-4 main branches, which are located relative to the trunk at an angle of 60-90 degrees at a height of 40-50 cm from the ground. The central conductor is cut out at this shaping.

Pruning pruning carried out with a sharp shears, and all sections treated with garden pitch.

Summer pruning plum

Pruning pruning in the summer is carried out when planting a seedling. In this case, the main trunk (center conductor) is cut by 1/3, and the side branches shortened by 2/3.

Adult plants are pruned in June-July. Summer pruning is predominantly sanitary in nature: they remove branches that have frozen over the winter, but were not recognized as damaged during spring pruning. Now that the flowers and fruits have not formed on these shoots, they can be safely cut out.

Also in the summer, young strictly vertical shoots are cut out on the ring (they can be broken off by hands) and branches, on which signs of diseases have appeared.

And shoots growing horizontally, leave.

Places of cuts young shoots heal quickly, so they can not gloss over the garden pitch.

How to cut the plum in the summer, see the following video:

Pruning in the fall

The tree is pruned in mid-September - early October (after leaf fall) so that it can prepare for wintering. Long and fast-growing branches shorten by a third so that they do not break under the weight of snow and gusty wind. If necessary, you can shorten the top of the tree. Also cut out all damaged and cracked shoots, as they are more susceptible to frost than others. In addition, the old plum at this time are pruning dry and diseased branches.

All plum shoots removed in the fall should be burned, because they can arrange for wintering dangerous pests.

In regions with mild winters in autumn, it is possible to carry out not only sanitary, but also formative pruning. However, in the unstable climate of the middle lane, it is better to postpone the matter until spring.

Features pruning old plums

When new shoots cease to grow on the old tree, in the beginning of spring old skeletal branches are cut down, and the sections of the sections are carefully cleaned and covered with garden pitch. At the site of the cut, new shoots are soon formed; only 3 or 4 of the strongest are left of them, the rest are removed in the middle of summer.

Consider: it is not recommended to cut at the same time a large number of old branches. Otherwise, the tree will not survive such a strong stress and die. Anti-aging pruning is better to stretch for 2-3 years.

Pruning pruned plum

Column-shaped plum has a compact crown. Fruits on such a tree do not grow on spreading branches, but along the trunk, therefore side shoots are useless. They are cut annually.

It is important to fully preserve the central conductor of the tree, it does not touch at all. If the top of the main shoot freezes, then additional shoots (two or three) will grow over time in this place. In this case, leave one, the most developed, and the rest are removed.

To get a good harvest of fruits, it is necessary not only to properly prune the plum, but also to competently care for the tree throughout the year. Read about the details of caring for this plant in the article Cultivation of plums in the garden - all about planting, watering, feeding and processing.

When can I cut the plum

The main pruning of the plum (sanitary and formative) is carried out in early spring, in March, when the winter frosts are left behind, but before the trees buds swell. If you cut the plum at a temperature of -10 ºC and below, cuts on brittle wood from a low temperature will not heal well.

You can prune the plum in the first half of summer, when sap flow in the plant slows down. The purpose of summer pruning is to help the tree cope with the crop, preventing the branches from breaking off.

Autumn pruning is performed after leaf fall, when all the vegetation processes are over in the tree. The purpose of the procedure is to prepare the plum for wintering.

In winter, when the temperature of the air on any day can fall to significant negative indicators, it is better not to perform trimming.

Is it possible to do without autumn pruning pruning?

During the autumn pruning, you free the tree from unnecessary branches burdening it, thereby eliminating the need to spend on them power and nourishment. The plant recovers faster, tolerates frost well and will be better bearing fruit next year. Besides, by removing infected branches and pests, you keep your plums healthy. If you move pruning in the spring, overwintering pests and infections from the beginning of the next season with a new force will begin to destroy the tree.

Many gardeners do pruning plums once a year - in the spring, but it should be borne in mind that sometimes spring comes suddenly, the plants start boiling up early in the juice, and you may simply not have time to prune before the sap starts. In this case, your plum will begin the season with a too long conductor, with a scruffy, thickened crown, in which pests and infections may well have already settled. The unsatisfactory condition of the tree will surely have a bad effect on its fruiting: the plums will be small, and there will be fewer of them than it could be if you clean up the autumn.

Autumn pruning plum

The main task of the autumn pruning - release of the plum before winter rest from broken, dry, diseased or pest branches.

The conductor of an adult plum is shortened to 2.5 m. In a seedling planted in spring, the conductor is cut by one third, and the shoots coming from it are cut by two thirds so that they do not interfere with each other. Then, on two-three-year-old trees, competing and actively growing shoots are shortened by 1/3 of the length, which in the future will make the crown too thick. On adult trees, shoots are shortened in spring.

All cuts and cuts, which diameter is more than 5 mm, need to be covered with garden pitch or Rannet paste. Plant residues, like fallen leaves, should be immediately removed and burned, since they can be infected with harmful microorganisms and pests that have settled for the winter. And if you have a garden shredder, then chop up the cut branches and lay them in the compost pit.

Pruning old plums

Under normal care, a plum can bear fruit for 15 years or more, but as soon as you find a growth attenuation and a decrease in yield, spend a rejuvenating pruning tree: shorten the conductor and cut the skeletal branches in the upper part of the crown. This technique is used so that the sun's rays and air can penetrate into the very depths of the crown. Then remove the branches that appeared in the last 3-4 years, cut out unnecessary tops, shoots and branches directed to the depth of the crown, intertwined with each other, hanging from the trunk or from the branches of the lower tier. Dry, broken, infected with diseases or pests branches and shoots are also subject to removal. Clean the sections and cuts with a knife and treat with garden pitch or oil paint on linseed oil.

If an old tree has never been pruned, you will have to divide the procedure into three stages: in one season, only a third of the old branches can be removed.

How to prune the young plum

If you planted a plum in the ground in the spring, then in the fall, at the end of the season, it can already be cut off. Pruning stimulates the growth of seedlings approaches the beginning of fruiting and increases its winter hardiness. But if the sapling does not take root well, it is better to transfer the first pruning to the next year, as the tree will firmly take root and adapt. From the second year of life, they begin to form tiers of skeletal branches, and in the future pruning of young plums is carried out 2-3 times a year, and the conductor for growth stimulation is shortened annually.

Purpose, types and methods of pruning pruning

To form a compact crown that freely passes light, air and pollinators, pruning of the seedling should begin in the year of planting. Young plum grows very quickly. In one warm season, she can release a lot of shoots, because prone to thickening. As a result, fruit units develop worse, the ovaries are laid mainly on the periphery, the fruits mature and grow shorter longer, more often affected by the moth and monoliosis. The densely twisted branches make the tree more sensitive to frost. From lack of light wood ripens worse, which leads to the risk of freezing.

Frost forming on the branches is capable of breaking them. Chaotically growing shoots, especially those departing at an acute angle from the trunk, are also prone to breaking and provoke gum therapy.

In addition to increasing the harvest, a comfortable crown with long-line branches will greatly facilitate its collection, and a beautiful, well-groomed tree will decorate the site.

Trimming, based on the task being performed, can be subdivided into several types:

  • formative: the phased creation of the crown of the required size and shape
  • restorative: fix by removing dry and broken branches,
  • regulating: maintaining intensive growth and renewal of wood,
  • sanitary: removal of pests,
  • rejuvenating: restoration of growth and fruiting of the old plum.

Not being a one-time procedure, regular care of the plant will be needed throughout its life.


Forming is carried out in two ways:

  1. Cut into a ring. Technique for complete removal of the branch. Cutting is carried out along the edge of the influx at the attachment point to the trunk, avoiding a deep cut or spike leaving.
  2. Kidney cut. It is done by slanting over the kidney from the back without leaving the spike at an angle of 45 °. Used to shorten shoots and change the direction of growth.

The timing of pruning and the specifics of seasonal work

The choice of time for pruning, depending on the season, has its own principles and advantages, depending on the climatic zone, condition and age of the tree. In the southern areas, plant care is preferable to carry out in the fall, although it is permissible to engage in forming there almost all year round. In the northern and central regions of the event is better to hold in spring or summer.

Spring kronirovanie

The beginning of spring is the best time to work. At this time, pruning is easier, which stimulates budding. Plum begins to vegetate one of the first in the garden, so it is important to begin the procedure before it starts. The exact time depends on the region. Gardeners are oriented on the development of the kidneys and the weather, when the night frosts have receded, but the active sap flow has not yet begun and the buds have not swelled. Formation of seedlings and rejuvenation of an adult representative should be completed about a month before bud break.

In the case of sanitization with the removal of patients, frozen and dry parts, there are no time limits. Non-leaf rods make it easier to determine which ones should be removed.

If the plums in the garden are of different ages, then it is preferable to start work with older individuals. With age, the flower buds of the plant wake up earlier.

It is more convenient to split the event into two stages. First, the thinning of thickened areas is carried out with the removal of excess shoots growing up the tops. For adult pets, bitches lowered to the ground can be transferred to new branches. Then you need to do the shortening of last year's growth of young seedlings. This contributes to the fouling of fruit units and accelerates the entry into fruiting.

Summer croning

Summer is an active season when the garden sets fruit. As a rule, rejuvenate and form fruit crops in this time is not accepted. However, plum tolerates summer intervention. Summer pruning by removing fatty tops contributes to the redirection of food to the fruitful branches. Also throughout the season, the root growth is cut so that there are no protruding stumps below the ground level and the trunk. Opening hours - June and July. At the end of the month, the side branches of the seedlings of the first and second year are shortened, without touching the central conductor.

The leafy tip allows you to notice the thickening, which will allow you to plan the subsequent pruning in the rest period. But unnoticed in spring, the frozen sprouts will be discovered right now.

Secateurs will need the entire season and for sanitization. Timely prophylactic removal of infected shoots will help avoid the spread of the disease, providing a healthy garden.

Autumn Croning

You can not ignore the autumn pruning. The main task of this season is to prepare the culture for the winter cold. To do this, remove all cracked, diseased and undeveloped shoots prone to freezing. You can remove too long branches and the top, which can be broken by frost, heavy snow or gusty wind. Если больную или сухую поросль нужно вырезать обязательно, то формирование кроны с прореживанием допустимо только в южной полосе с продолжительной осенью. Сезонное вмешательство из-за сниженного заживления повышает риск подмерзания культуры. В северных и центральных районах мероприятия лучше перенести на весну.

Depending on the region, procedures are carried out in September or early October. This is usually the time after falling foliage and before the onset of the first frost.

In order to avoid the spread of infections and parasites, all remote branches are burned, and the instrument is washed with a disinfectant solution after cutting the diseased seedlings.

Winter kronirovanie

Not all gardeners know and use winter trimming work. These include all spring activities, but the choice for the manipulations of this time of the year has its advantages:

  • because of the early growing season there is no risk of being late with the spring formation,
  • lack of foliage allows you to better assess the state of the culture,
  • in winter, the tree sleeps and does not experience stress when removing shoots,
  • spilov places turn out smoother without wood,
  • the ladder does not damage the plant and neighboring cultures.

Work at this time is limited to a climate with mild mild winters. Circumcision should be done in February at a temperature not lower than 15 ° C.

Techniques and schemes for the formation of the correct crown

To create a beautiful tree, you need to know the basic principles of its formation. Well-groomed plum looks like a neat tree of medium height with a central conductor and 4-9 skeletal branches arranged in tiers. The lower tiers are more gradually decreasing upper. The main branches are never located at an acute angle to the trunk. Shoots grow "outward", forming a loose crown. Practiced on plants and bowl-shaped form.

Most often saplings are sold on high-growth cherry plum rootstocks, therefore the main method of creating a good basis is to reduce the growth upwards and horizontal expansion.

Post-plant formation of a young tree

The first careful pruning begins in the year of planting so that the small root system is able to provide the seedling with food. Putting off for 1-2 years cutting and pinching the branches retards the growth of the tree. Approach with a pruner to a young culture can be several times a year, because the increase is uneven. In the first year, the central trunk shortens to one and a half meters in height, which over the summer will increase future first-order skeletal branches. The following year, these lateral growths are shortened by about a third or half the length (about 30 cm). The cut is performed on the lower bud, to ensure further development occurred outward, and not upward or inward to the crown. The branches that appear below the main ones are shortened to 7-10 cm and are temporarily left until next year. They will help to thicken the trunk. In the third year, second-order shoots are controlled, cut by half. Of these, you need to leave 8-10 evenly spaced strong shoots. At the same time, you can clear from the other branches of the stem completely.

A similar good result is obtained when using pinching and bending. In this case, after cutting off the leader, the remaining branches are given free growth, and then with the help of stretch marks bend them to the ground. Having fastened the stretch marks around the ends of the shoots, they are left in this position for several months. Then cutting the branches on the side branch or on the bud, create a pyramidal vertex. This means that the lower tier is longer than the upper one and not obscured by it. Growing deep or thickening processes should be removed by the same principle. Created in such a way, the krone after years under the crop bends the branch down, which leads to the grinding of fruits. Then the fruit is transferred to the young branches, and the slanted branches are removed.

Caring for a fruiting plum

The young three-year-old tree gives already big annual gains. The lateral growth is shortened to 15 cm, and the apical - to 30 cm. In order to direct the growth of shoots to the outside, sections are also made on the lower bud. In the future, the formed plant will require uncomplicated annual care regulatory pruning.

Just run the processing plants are not worth it. After all, even a well-educated crown will thicken with time, which will inevitably lead to a decrease in yield and a deterioration in its quality. To remedy the situation, you should conduct a phased rejuvenation of plums. The first to remove growing inside and damaged, dried branches, basal growth. The next year is thinning, leaving young strong shoots. The update will give impetus to a powerful increase. Some young shoots will be able to replace the old skeletal females, and the rest should be removed to the ring.

All cuts more than a centimeter in diameter are subject to mandatory smearing with garden pitch. This will help avoid gum cure, protect the sink from infection and drying out.

Rejuvenation of old wood

With timely, competent processing, abundant fruiting of the culture lasts about fifteen years. All these years, pruning maintained a uniform addition of the main conductor and the main branches. Then, upon reaching the maximum height characteristic of the variety, the growth stops. From now on, the tree is considered to be aging and requires a slightly different kronirovanie. When the decline in growth becomes noticeable, proceed to the rejuvenation of the old plums. This can be seen when the plant gives a small crop, and that only at the top of the crown.

The event on rejuvenation is divided into several stages:

  1. When the plum reaches about 2.5 meters, the trunk and the upper large branches are cut out. This will lighten the crown and relieve the center.
  2. Removed woven and directed inside shoots. At the same time, sick, weak and dry branches are cut.
  3. Hanging lashes coming from the lower tier and trunk are eliminated.
  4. Skeletal branches are shortened and transferred to the outer side shoots.
  5. Unnecessary tops are subjected to cutting.

Total cutting of “all and at once” to the old plum is contraindicated. This will lead to severe stress and may even destroy the tree. The whole procedure of rejuvenation is better to stretch for 3-4 years.

Large skeletal branches must be filed on both sides to avoid breaking under their weight. The rapid tightening of the wound with bark and the growth of a new growth will provide an even neat saw cut. A broken place may not give fresh shoots, and a fungus will enter the wound. All cuts and cuts are processed by garden pitch or a mixture of mullein and clay.

Rejuvenation, carried out according to all the rules, will allow a caring owner to get good yields from the plum for more than one year.

At first glance, pruning pruning may seem like a daunting task. But the recommendations for the correct kronirovanii, as it turned out, are not so complicated. Their implementation will allow you to be proud of the beauty of your garden and get decent yields.

Goals for pruning fall pruning

Pruning can be cut for almost the entire year - with the exception of the period of winter frost. However, any seasonal pruning has its own specific goals. For example, in the spring, pruned branches and shoots are pruned mainly to remove improperly developing parts. In the summer it is most convenient to form the beautiful outlines of the crown of the tree.

As for the autumn pruning, its main goal is the sanitary care of the plant. After the plum leaves fall, dried and damaged branches that are no longer useful for the next year become especially visible.

In addition, pruning in the fall protects the plum from damage. If there is too much snow on the densely growing branches in winter, they can break, and accordingly, in the spring you will have to treat the tree. After the correct pruning, the plum transfers snowfall calmly and in the spring it continues to grow confidently and healthy.

When to prune: autumn or spring

Autumn is not just an acceptable time when pruning can be done. Autumn work has its advantages, because of which many gardeners deliberately postpone the process for September. Namely:

  • Autumn is the best time for sanitization. All dried or fungus-damaged branches are clearly visible and easy to remove.
  • After the autumn pruning pruning goes to the winter dormancy, and the vegetative processes in it stop. Therefore, pruning does not slow down the development of the tree. Until spring, the places of cuts have time to grow, and the tree continues to grow without interference.
  • In the autumn it is much easier to gather all the pruned branches and burn the foliage and burn them so that the possible infection does not exactly spread further.

Is it possible to trim the top of the plum

Novice gardeners are often afraid to trim the top, for fear of damaging the entire tree. However, in fact, you can trim the plum and from the top - even necessary. Otherwise, the tree can go into growth too powerfully, and for pruning will have to make much more effort. In addition, the tops that are not engaged in fruiting, hinder the development of the plant with a strong growth and adversely affect the yield.

Is pruning pruned in winter

Usually pruned in the fall, spring or summer - in the warm seasons of the year. However, winter pruning is sometimes practiced, which has the following advantages:

  • There are no buds on the plum during this period, the vegetative processes do not take place, respectively, the tree is not under stress from pruning.
  • Frozen shoots are sawn more easily, so-called “scuffs” rarely occur during pruning - inaccurate wood splitting off near the cut point.

But of course, it is possible to trim the plum in winter only under certain conditions. To perform the work it is better to choose the middle of February, while a thaw is needed with a temperature not lower than, and preferably higher than + 10 degrees. Thus, winter pruning is only suitable for southern areas with mild and warm winters.

Top dressing of plum in the fall

After pruning in the fall, the plum must be fed. Fertilizers applied will help the tree to recover from damage faster and enter the growing season in the most healthy state.

In autumn, it is customary to feed the plum with three types of fertilizers, namely:

  • Wood ash - at the rate of 200 - 300 g of fertilizer for one tree. Ash fills the root system with useful minerals and reduces the acidity of the soil.
  • Potassium - in the amount of 100 g of dry composition per 10 liters of water. Fertilizer is applied not only under the trunk, they also sprayed branches and crown. Potassium in the fall removes maximum fluids from the shoots and plum stem, thereby preventing the winter freezing.
  • Phosphorus - in the amount of 50 g per 1 sq. Km. m around the trunk. Fertilizer strengthens the roots and helps the plum to better absorb protein and sugary compounds.

But organic fertilizers such as dung, compost and bird droppings are not recommended for feeding plums in the fall after pruning. Organics emit nitrogen, which provokes the growth of shoots - it is better to use such fertilizers in spring.

Pruning and care for plums in the fall, fertilizers help keep the plant as healthy as possible and ensure the successful development of the plum in the spring.

How to prepare the plum for the winter

Pruning and dressing are not the only activities that include high-quality preparation of the plum for the winter.

  • Watering. Before the onset of winter, it is necessary to bring enough moisture under the plum stem to help the plant survive the winter. The amount of water is determined depending on the soil. If the groundwater lies close to the surface, then it is necessary to soak the ground around the trunk with water one meter deep, if the soil is dry enough, then two meters deep. Pre-winter watering is carried out before the arrival of frosts, but after the leaves fall, and under the condition that there was little rain in the fall.
  • Caring for a plum in the fall includes mulching. After watering and fertilizing, the soil around the trunk of the plum is mulched - that is, sprinkled with a layer of mulch, covered with burlap in several layers, and then dropped in a small amount of soil. Mulching warms the roots, keeps moisture in them throughout the winter, does not allow the root system to freeze.
  • In order to protect the plum stem from diseases, infections and pests, it is whitened with a special solution based on lime, mullein and clay. You can also add copper sulphate to the solution. First, the trunk of the plum is carefully treated with a scraper or brush, removing the areas of old bark and growths, and then whitewash is applied in an even layer.
  • In order to avoid freezing, the trunk of the plum and the ground around the trunk are warmed for the winter. For example, you can lay a trunk with spruce branches, wrap a layer of insulating material. After the snow falls, you need to trample it around the tree - a trampled snow layer will protect the roots from both frost and rodents.

Conclusion

Pruning pruning in the fall - one of the options for tree care, which enjoys considerable popularity. If you carry out such a procedure at the right time and according to all the rules, then it will be much more useful for a tree than spring or summer pruning.

Do I need to cut the plum

Plum - a tree up to 15 m in height with an egg-shaped crown, whose productive age is 10–15 years, but it can live up to a quarter of a century

A beginner gardener may decide that there is no need to prune a plum tree - this tree is compact, unwilling to grow in breadth. But at the same time his crown grows very quickly and the branches intertwine.

In the early years, this feature may seem like a plus. A plum is faster than other fruit trees, it creates the necessary volume for fruiting, the first fruits will appear earlier, and the yield will grow rapidly.

But after 4–5 years more and more empty space will appear inside the crown, and on the periphery the branches will thicken, become too long and thin, most of the fruits and leaves will settle there. The harvest will be uneven, the fruits are crushed, and their quality will seriously deteriorate. New fruitful branches will cease to appear. In addition, the plum will become unstable to cold, may wither and die.

The correct pruning pruning procedure will help the tree to be healthy, to bear fruit for a long time, improve the quality of the crop and give a well-groomed look.

When it is better to cut - in spring or autumn

Autumn pruned pruning is more relevant for areas with warm, mild winters, in cooler regions it is better to postpone pruning in the spring

Traditionally, plum trees are pruned in the fall from September to October or in spring in March-April, sometimes pruning is practiced even in the middle of summer, so that the tree can withstand the harvest without broken branches. The timing of the procedure depends on:

  • on the type of trim,
  • climate of the region
  • the age of the tree.

The first pruning is done in spring, it prepares the tree for the fruiting season and includes:

  • removal of affected and competing branches,
  • formation of skeleton and crown.

Spring pruning will be successful if the growing season has not yet begun, and the tree is no longer threatened by frost.

Pruning pruning in the fall to prepare for winter is the second most important procedure after spring care. It can be started only when the tree has completely dropped the foliage - a sign of the end of the growing season. However, tightening with pruning is not worth it, early frosts can strike unexpectedly. The following branches will be deleted:

  • dry
  • broken
  • too actively growing
  • affected by disease or pests
  • one-year competitors that thicken the crown.

If the top of the tree has reached 2.5 meters, in the fall it can also be removed.

In the fall, the annual shoots of a young tree are shortened by 1/3.

2-3-year-old branches of old trees should be left in the spring. Pruned branches are burned so that the overwintering parasitic insects do not breed in the spring in the garden.

List of tools and materials

If the garden is young, one secateur is enough for it

For pruning trimming you need high-quality and well-ground tools:

  • Pruner for branches up to 25 mm. The bypass model is good for live branches, the anvil model is for dried ones.
  • Lopper for twigs up to 50 mm thick in hard to reach places. Long handles allow you to penetrate the thickened crown.
  • Small and large garden saw (hacksaw) for branches thicker than 50 mm (dead and dry)
  • Garden knife for burrs and irregularities.

Cuts and cuts need to be treated with garden pitch - prepare it in advance.

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