V. DADYKIN, scientist agronomist
Growing a blooming lilac bush is not easy. It is necessary to master the various wisdoms of its cultivation.
WHICH SEEDENTS BUY
A few years ago, it was almost impossible to buy varietal lilacs. We were satisfied more or less with the "good" taken by the otvodkom from a neighbor. Now, in the capital and regional centers, any planting material, including lilac, is sold not only in the short period of the April planting, but also in May-June in plastic pots with a closed root system. And such plants can be planted at any time, from spring to late autumn.
There are not so many varieties as we would like. Mostly French selection (Charles Joly, Buffon, Madame Lemoine, and others), although sometimes there are domestic ones, derived by our compatriot, breeder Leonid Alekseevich Kolesnikov (Valentina Grizodubova, Sensation, Alexey Maresiev). Each of them is good in its own way. However, the problem of choice remains, but rather not the varieties, but the seedlings themselves. The market offers seedlings propagated by grafting on lilac seedlings, or rooted own, obtained by rooting cuttings. There are also those that are "born" in laboratory test tubes - by the method of tissue culture (see "Science and Life" No. 5, 2001).
And each of them has its pros and cons. For example, own-lilac root is convenient because it is winter-hardy and forms low, but strongly expanding bushes. All the growths emerging from such bushes are varietal, although it is also desirable to remove it. But do not throw away, and plant as varietal seedlings. Nevertheless, this lilac has a significant drawback: compared with the graft, it blooms 3-4 years later.
Lilac grown by the method of tissue culture can also be called own-rooted, only its quality is higher, it is a super-super-elite, free from viruses, improved and rejuvenated. However, in the first two years this lilac develops rather slowly and blooms not earlier than on the 5-6th year.
Grafted lilac, in addition to the rapid entry into the flowering period, is good because it is easy to form on a high trunk. The most durable is the one that is grafted on wild-growing lilac. But with proper planting, lilac on any stock can become long-lived.
Lilac unpretentious, hardy and drought-resistant, but, like many garden plants, its roots can not stand the stagnation of water. Even short-term flooding causes their extinction. Therefore, with the occurrence of groundwater in a half to two meters from the surface it can be planted only in high beds.
The soil should be water and breathable, loose, fertile, preferably loamy, slightly acidic, neutral or slightly alkaline. The place is chosen to be sheltered from the wind, sunny, although slight shading is possible.
Graft or standard plants are planted two or two and a half meters from one another, and formed as a bush in three, because over the years they occupy a considerable area.
The diameter and depth of the planting pit is 40-50 cm, on heavy clay soils - deeper, with drainage from broken brick and crushed stone and coarse sand from above. The pit is filled with a nutrient mixture from the upper fertile layer of earth with humus or compost, where evenly, with mixing, add a glass of superphosphate and a half-liter jar of wood ash. The extent to which this mixture of soil and fertilizer is successful depends on the intensity of plant development, the length of the annual growth and ultimately the timing of flowering, and sometimes even the size and shades of the petals of the inflorescence.
Last year, the greatest increase in biennial seedlings (60 cm each) in my garden caused the introduction of the fully soluble complex seven-color fertilizer fertilizer (90 g per large hole) in the planting hole in combination with watering the earth when planted with a weak solution of potassium humate (tea-colored).
Fill the hole in advance, at least two to three weeks before planting, so that the nutrient mixture has time to settle down. After that, they put a little knotted soil on it, without fertilizers, and put a seedling out of the pot along with an earthy ball. When grafting on turquoise, the root neck and the grafting site itself (it is released by cambial rushes on the trunk) are buried 5–8 cm below the ground level so that the lilac gradually “passes” onto its own roots. Seedlings grafted on wild lilac seedlings are planted 3-4 cm above the root collar. Thereby reducing the number of growing wild shoots from the buds in the lower part of the stock. But it is even more expedient when all of them are removed, carefully cutting them off when they are planted with a sharp razor.
Own-rooted seedlings, including tiny ones, 10–15 cm high, obtained by clonal propagation, must be buried and mulched during planting with breathable moist humus. In this case, however, regular and abundant watering is important, especially immediately after planting.
Unlike most horticultural crops, lilac perfectly tolerates transplanting even in the summer, only neat, with a large earthy clod, in overcast weather and with abundant watering after transplanting. The breeder Leonid Kolesnikov successfully transplanted adult lilac bushes after their flowering (!) In the phase of full browning of shoots.
Surprisingly, in lilac transplanted in summer, unlike other plants, the leaves do not fade, the roots begin to grow rapidly, and its growth is not at all slowed down.
Although lilac is considered an unpretentious plant, its successful development and near-term flowering entirely depend on our constant care. For example, in the dry summer, it is constantly watered in the first two years - no less than moisture-loving cucumbers, especially in June and July. And lilac loves the shower: the dust from its leaves is washed off with a strong stream of water.
The best fertilizer for seedlings is potassium-phosphorus-calcium with the presence of such trace elements as magnesium, manganese and boron. All this is in the ashes of birch wood, which also contributes to the rapid absorption of nitrogen. Of the complex mineral fertilizers, only those that do not contain chlorine are acceptable. They are often used in foliar dressing - when spraying leaves. Significantly intensify the biochemical processes occurring in plants, in particular, increase the number of large buds in inflorescences, zinc sulphate, magnesium and boron.
As on the "yeast" lilac develops after fertilizing with organic matter infusions - mullein, chicken droppings, and even better - horse manure. On sale there are compact plastic cans with concentrated extracts of manure (by the way, odorless). One liter of this extract is enough for quick preparation of a whole barrel of fertilizer solution.
FORMING AND CUTTING
Both grafted and own-rooted lilacs, with sharp shears "on the ring", regularly remove all shoots that appear at the root collar and in the near-stem circle. After all, shoots noticeably weakens the development of the main skeletal branches, their flowering and even leads to desiccation. But you can not remove these shoots, and set aside to another place.
Also cut out all the thickening shoots that develop inside the crown. Spreading bushes seem to "squeeze", removing or shortening the branches that go beyond a certain contour. At the end of the summer, growing points are pinned to growing points, which allows them to freeze.
It is also necessary to limit the excessively violent flowering of young 4-5-year-old plants, otherwise it will weaken them and will have a negative impact on further development. At the same time, barbaric cutting, and especially breaking of flowering branches, not only prevents the formation of a beautiful crown, but also disrupts regular flowering, it becomes periodic - with the omission of one season.
The formation of a trunk is usually started in the third or fourth year of life of a tree growing with a single stem. For vertical fixing, it is usually tied to a peg. A spherical crown is formed at a meter height or slightly higher. All the branches below are removed "on the ring", as well as the underdeveloped and intersecting inside the crown. The main shoot continued to shorten, ensuring good development of the lateral skeletal branches. However, they also have to pinch in the summer, during intensive growth, in order to achieve maximum compactness of the crown and the necessary branching.
They cut not only the standard lilac, but also free-growing bushes, removing all the small twigs at the bottom of the skeletal branches, as well as shrunken, broken and ugly growing.
Reproduction by green cuttings
In June, it's time to do green cuttings - rooting short-cut shoots from the current growth sprigs. Rooting is carried out in a film, well-lit greenhouse or in a greenhouse at a temperature of 22-28 ° C and high, 85 percent humidity. Cuttings are planted in coarse-grained river sand or in its mixture with construction perlite (1: 1), they are often sprayed with water and shaded from sunlight. It is easier to do this in low flat boxes covered with glass.
Not all varieties of lilac root well. According to the ability to form roots, they are divided into three groups: the smallest - with high rooting rate (85-100%): varieties Nadezhda, Moscow Morning, Sholokhov, Hugo de Vries, Buffon, Paul Arno, with average rooting rate (50-85%): Hortensia, Red Moscow, Marshal Zhukov, Marshal Foch, Congo, Princess Clementine, Excellente, with weak rooting (1-49%): Alyonushka, Kolesnikova Olympiad, Ludwig Shpet, Madame Lemoine. And, finally, alas, the most numerous group, not able to take root at all: all other domestic and foreign varieties, in particular Beauty Moscow, Poincare.
Root any cuttings must skillfully, using a variety of "tricks". For example, it is known that cuttings from young, up to 6-8 years old, shrubs root much better, and they are not cut during the day, but early in the morning or in the evening, in no case allowing for drying. To do this, cut the cuttings with a clean sharp knife wrapped in a damp cloth and planted as soon as possible. In addition, it is noted that in late terms, at the end of June, it is not the middle or lower part of the green shoot that takes root much better, but its tip, with a pair of internodes.
To increase rooting, they sometimes completely isolate from the light that part of the shoot where cutting is supposed to take place. Moreover, they carry out isolation (this etiolation is called) right on the bush. For this purpose, two or three weeks before the expected period of grafting with black insulating tape, without tension, wrap the lowest part of the newly awakened shoots with a ring. After a day or two, such black marks are placed higher, retreating by two or three internodes. Periodically ringlets are corrected, and sometimes they are bandaged. After two or three weeks, when the bandaged areas of the regrown branches become white, the insulation is unwound and cross sections of the cuttings are made under the etiolated sections. It is from them that the roots will develop later.
Noticeably increases the etiolation efficiency is another "trick" that you can use, though next season. In late April - early May, branches with swollen buds are covered loosely with a bag of black polyethylene or carefully wrapped with any other light-insulating material, for example, with foil. Three weeks later, when etiolated whitish shoots are formed, the coating is removed and the ringlets of black tape are immediately applied.
Contributes to the rooting of green cuttings and a simpler procedure - their pretreatment in an aqueous solution of biologically active stimulants. Heteroauxin (indole acetic acid) is most known. Two tablets of this drug (0.2 g) are dissolved in a liter of warm water and the cuttings are immersed in it for 14-16 hours, covering them with a jar or polyethylene on top of them with a new bag. According to the head of the physiology laboratory of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, L. V. Runkova, the rooting is accelerated twice by the treatment of cuttings with an aqueous solution of heteroauxin with the addition of the drug Zircon (0.5 mg - 5 ampoules per liter of water).
After rooting, the cuttings begin to be gradually accustomed to the outside air, and then transplanted into loose fertile soil. A flowering plant is formed from them in four to five years.
Old, weakened lilac bush with crushed flowers can be rejuvenated. First of all, carefully cut out the old trunks with flaking bark. Each year, during the rest period, they shorten by one third the branches of the old growth. In the root zone of the bush make rotted manure and some bone meal.
The content of the article
- When the lilac blooms
- How to transplant a lilac
- When the cherry blossoms
There is a beautiful old legend. Once the goddess of spring, mixing the rays of the sun with the motley rays of the rainbow, showered them with meadows, fields, crevices of rocks, valleys and tree branches. Everywhere, where these life-giving rays were laid, red and pink, dark blue and pale blue, snow-white and golden flowers blossomed. They formed umbrellas, stars, bowls, brushes, bells and ears.
It was a riot of beauty, splendor and fragrance. And it was lilac.
There are many legends about lilacs. But the Scandinavian - the most beautiful. And it tells about the lilac the most important thing: it is luxurious, unusually beautiful, diverse and many-sided. Growing it began to engage more recently - about five centuries ago. The variety of lilac varieties among all ornamental shrubs is second only to rhododendrons and roses.
Where are you from
Homeland lilac is Greece and Asia Minor. She came to Russia at the beginning of the 17th century. Lilac - ornamental shrub in height from 2 to 7 meters, having a powerful root system. Perhaps this is the most common shrub, which can be found in almost every yard.
There is a simple lilac, and there is also a terry. Simple is so unpretentious that it grows in whole thickets, forming living fragrant hedges. Terry lilac - sissy and very capricious when transplanting. Her fragrance is much weaker than that of wild lilac.
In the botanical gardens cultivate different varieties of this shrub, there are dozens of varieties, colors and shades. But every year all new species are introduced. In the period of flowering in the botanical gardens - just a pilgrimage of tourists who want to enjoy the beauty and intoxicating scent.
Freshly cut lilac bouquets are not recommended to leave in your house for the night. You can get severe allergies or a severe headache. Therefore, do not cut and give a bouquet of lilacs. Moreover, there is an alternative - the fragrance of lilac flowers is a part of many perfumery products. This is a women's and men's line of perfumes, toilet water, shampoos and soap.
There is a lilac early and late. Its flowering depends on weather conditions and the area of growth. Early lilac blooms in early May and when dry warm weather pleases lush flowering. However, fluffy lilacs quickly fade.
If the spring is cool and with abundant rainfall, the lilac blooms in mid-May. This is common lilac. In late May, the Hungarian lilac blooms.
Late lilac blooms in early June, its blooming is long and the scent that the flowers of this shrub emit is stupefying and enveloping everything around. It was not for nothing that a folk omen arose: if you find a five-petal halo in the inflorescence and eat it, then the lucky person will have luck.
The development of lilac in the world
At that time, this shrub was very modest, the bushes bloomed for a very short time, the flowers were small, and therefore this plant was not particularly in demand among gardeners. But at the end of the nineteenth century French breeder Viktor Lemoine introduced several new shrub varieties. All varieties of Victor Lemoine differed for a long period of flowering, had luxurious flowers, and some varieties even possessed terry buds. In total, Victor Lemoine was able to bring two hundred and fourteen varieties of lilac, and later his son and grandson were engaged in the selection of shrubs.
In the first years of the twentieth century, the Dutch became interested in breeding. Dutch breeder Maarse managed to bring a shrub whose flowers were very large up to three centimeters in diameter, as well as a variety with a rare coloring, which has a border around the edge.
In the twenties, the shrub falls in North America and Canada. The so-called "Lilac Festival" has become very popular in the United States. A huge number of people from all over the world annually gather at this event and hold it in the Lilac Garden, which was made in 1892 by the American breeder John Dunbar. Is "Lilac Garden" in the state of New York, the city of Rochester.
In Russia, the Beauty of Moscow shrub variety is in great demand. In 1973, this variety received the recognition and award of the Golden Branch of Lilac, which was held in Boston from the international union of breeders and lovers of lilacs. The variety of shrubs "Beauty of Moscow" brought Russian breeder Leonid Kolesnikov. Kolesnikov was engaged in the selection of lilac from 1916, in his own garden and was self-taught, he brought about three hundred varieties of this shrub, of which fifty use today. Но награду за свое лучшее достижение в селекционной работе, Колесников получить не успел, так как умер в 1968 году.
Внешний вид сирени обыкновенной
Сирень обыкновенная представляет собой кустарник, высотой от двух до восьми метров. Этот кустарник имеет несколько стволов, которые в диаметре могут достигать двадцати сантиметров. The leaves on the branches are shaped like heartsIn the autumn they do not turn yellow, they may slightly turn pale and fall green, and in southern areas they may stand green under snow during the winter, although this is a deciduous shrub.
The flowers on the branches of the shrub look like bunches of small flowers gathered together. In color lilac, can be:
The flowers of this plant are very fragrant, wild bush species tend to bloom less in time and do not have double flowers.
The shrub of this plant can live to be a hundred years old.. In the wild form is found in Bulgaria, Greece, Romania and the Carpathians, likes to grow on the slopes of the mountains in the forests. In Russia, cultivated to the latitude of the city of St. Petersburg, can grow in Central Asia and in the southern parts of Siberia and the Far East.
How to care for the bushes
Lilac unpretentious plant. Landing site better to choose sunny and warm. But in the shade the shrub will grow and bloom very well. In a more sunny place, the flowers in the shrub will be smaller, compared to plants that are in partial shade. It is better to plant shrubs on the elevated places of the site, as this plant does not like dampness. Lilac is cold-resistant enough and can tolerate even extreme cold.
In Moscow and the Moscow region, the beginning of the growing season begins in the last decade of April. The leaves on the lilac bushes appear in two weeks, and the bush begins to bloom in another two weeks, that is, around the twentieth of May.
When the lilac blossoms the air is filled with a wonderful aroma. Different varieties of shrubs begin to bloom at different times. Earlier varieties can bloom from the twentieth to the twenty-fifth May, medium to late varieties from twenty-seventh of may to fifth of juneand later varieties begin to bloom in mid-June. Previously, white and rose bushes bloom, and purple and violet blooms, as a rule, later. The period of flowering of any varieties of lilac lasts about a month, and white flowers, bloom faster.
If at the end of May there is a good, warm weather, the flowering bushes will last longer. And if May is cold, then early and middle-late varieties will bloom simultaneously with late varieties.
How to save a bouquet of lilacs
Few people can pass by when the lilac blossoms, which spreads its wondrous aroma and does not want to take these flowers with them to decorate and fill their home with the scent. But in the vase lilac stand for longin two or three days it will begin to fade.
In order for the branches to stand longer in the conditions of the room, they must be properly cut. It is better to cut the branches early in the morning and choose flowers with buds, rather than fully open. It is impossible to break branches, they need to be cut with an oblique cut.
In the water for the bouquet you need to add a little lemon juice, or you can make a nutritional composition of sugar and salicylic acid.
Bouquet nutrient solution:
- Water - one liter.
- Sugar - two tablespoons.
- Salicylic acid - one hundred grams.
Before you put the branches in the water, you need to remove all the lower leaves and slightly split each branch at the bottom of the cut.
Every day, the branches and flowers of the bouquet should be sprayed with water, and the nutrient composition in the vase should be changed to fresh and keep the bouquet better in a cool place. With this care, branches with flowers can stand for a week or even longer.
When the lilac blooms and why it does not bloom
Lilac like many, because this shrub with fragrant lush buds does not require special care, but it can become a worthy decoration of any suburban area. When lilac blossoms, it is impossible to pass by a fragrant shrub, without paying attention to it.
But there are situations when lilac for no apparent reason stops blooming. In this article we will try to figure out why it does not bloom and what work needs to be done to make the inflorescences appear.
Lilac in bloom: pictures and photos
Surely everyone has seen how lilac blooms, and although most of its inflorescences are associated with a soft purple hue, the colors of the buds can be very diverse, depending on the type of plant.
See how the lilac blooms of different species, you can on the photo (Figure 1). They will help you choose the best variety for decorating your backyard.
What time of the year it blooms
The flowering time of the crop depends on the climatic conditions. Most varieties start budding at the end of May (for example, Persian, Hungarian or ordinary). But there are varieties that bloom in early May (for example, the Chinese variety).
Figure 1. Photos of shrubs in bloom
If you want to enjoy the scent of this shrub in summer, we recommend planting the Amur variety, which blooms later than the others - in July. However, it should be borne in mind that the beginning of flowering largely depends on the ambient temperature. If the spring is early and warm, and the temperature stably stays above +15 degrees, you can count on an earlier beginning of flowering.
Why lilac does not bloom: reasons
The lack of flowering shrubs - a fairly common problem among gardeners. As a rule, this is due to improper care or poorly chosen place for landing.
But there are other reasons for the lack of flowering:
- Lack of light - the most common reason. This culture belongs to the light-loving plants, and if you plant it in the shade of trees or close to buildings, it will not bloom.
- Incorrectly selected area It can also lead to the fact that the ornamental shrub will not be covered with buds. It can not be planted on wetlands or in places with close groundwater.
- Exposure to diseases and pests weakens the plant, and it spends nutrients on the restoration of shoots, and not on the formation of buds.
In addition, the lack of flowering may be due to improper care: a lack or excess of fertilizers, lack of pruning or excessive watering.
How to make a lilac blossom
If you planted a sapling on your plot, and it successfully caught on, grew, but did not start to bloom, you should reconsider the methods of caring for the shrubs. Ordinary garden culture is well acclimatized in any areas, but for high-quality seedlings it is necessary to create special conditions.
We will try to figure out what action must be taken to make the lilac blossom.
The first step is to choose the right site for planting. It should be well illuminated by the sun in the morning, and in the second moderate shading is allowed. Also, the site should be protected from drafts and strong gusts of wind.
Note: The site for planting should not be swamped, since the proximity of groundwater has a negative effect on the growth of the shrub.
The soil should be light and crumbly: peaty or sandy. If there is heavy soil in your area, a special light substrate is added to the planting well for this crop.
After planting a shrub caring (Figure 2):
- Regularly water the shrub, not over-wetting the soil, and remove weeds,
- In early spring to feed the culture with organic fertilizers,
- In early May, it is necessary to feed mineral nitrogen fertilizers.
In addition, it is necessary to mulch the soil around the shrub to prevent the evaporation of moisture from the soil and stop the growth of weeds.
From the video you will learn how to properly care for lilacs so that it blooms regularly.
Despite the fact that the plant does not tolerate high humidity of the soil and practically does not take root in the marshy areas, watering the plant should be regular.
In hot weather it is necessary to water not only the soil around the shrub, but also to spray the leaves. However, the water should not be too cold, and the procedure itself should be carried out in the morning or in the evening so that the leaves will not burn.
It is necessary to irrigate with lime mortar annually: dissolve a few grams of lime powder in a bucket of water and pour it under a shrub. This will help stimulate flowering.
How to prune the lilac to bloom
Pruning plays an important role in stimulating flowering. It can not be done in the fall, as the removal of excess shoots will stop the formation of buds, and next year the shrub may not bloom (Figure 3).
Note: It is recommended to remove extra branches immediately after completion of flowering. Figure 3. Shrub trimming scheme
Once every three years spend rejuvenation of the shrub. To do this, cut out all the branches, thickening the crown or growing inside the bush. It is also necessary to remove all old and dry shoots. Places of cuts should always be smeared with garden pitch or oil paint to prevent infection from getting inside the wound.
Pests and diseases
Lilac, like other garden plants, is exposed to diseases and pests. To prevent this, prophylactic sprays are carried out with Bordeaux mixture or special anti-insect chemicals.
The most common diseases and pests of plants are considered (Figure 4):
- Fungi provoke the formation of spots of different shapes and sizes on the leaves. In the future, the leaves and buds begin to fall off. In order to prevent the spread of fungi, all damaged leaves and shoots must be collected and burned, the bush must be fed with potash fertilizers and sprayed with copper preparations.
- Late blight leads to the fact that the buds on the bushes do not open, and the bark is covered with brown spots. The leaves begin to curl, and the buds wither. All affected parts of the plant are removed and burned, followed by spraying with Bordeaux mixture.
- Nematodes lead to the death of the roots, with the result that the shrub begins to gradually discard foliage and dry out. To eliminate the pest, it is necessary to cut off and burn all damaged parts and treat the soil with special chemicals against the pest. For prevention, you can plant a decorative onion near the bush.
It is much easier to prevent diseases than to cure; therefore, all weeds should be promptly removed, fertilizer should be regularly fertilized and preventive treatment with copper and Bordeaux preparations should be carried out.
What year does lilac bloom after planting
The bush can be covered with inflorescences in the first year after planting. But it is better to remove these buds immediately, preventing the shrub from blooming. It is necessary to preserve the vitality of the plant. In the second year, you can leave inflorescences.
However, these terms apply only to grafted seedlings. If the crop was grown by seed, layering, or grafting, full flowering will only occur 4-5 years after planting.
Healing properties of lilac
In our time - this plant is widely used for medicinal purposes. But our distant ancestors did not like and even feared him. The lilac bush was considered the harbinger of death. If someone, God forbid, brought at least one sprig of lilac, then be trouble. It was believed that soon in the house someone seriously ill or even die. There is no mystery in this. The reason for this fear, as it turned out, is simple. Today we can easily explain this fear of our ancestors. It is known that the smell of lilac is often causes allergies and asthma. That, in turn, can lead to death.
If a person suffers from bronchial asthma, then he should avoid contact with this plant. In no case do not plant at his home. Despite this lilac is widely used in the treatment of human ailments. From the color make tinctures and ointments. Ointments effectively treat joints. Alcohol tinctures reduce heat. And even take inside. But with these procedures you need to be extremely careful.
It is believed that the lilac is among the most unpretentious plants. However, we all understand that everyone needs care without exception. We want to admire the lush and fragrant color, which means we will have to give our attention and care in return. The most important thing in care - regular loosening of the earth. Especially when the lilac is young. After all, loosening promotes good access of moisture and air to the soil. Lilac should be protected from frost in the spring and drought in the summer.
It is necessary to water this plant in the first half of summer. If the weather during this period is not rainy, watering should be abundant and deep. Approximately up to thirty liters per square meter. In the second half of summer, lilac can be watered in case of severe drought. Excess moisture during this period can lead to re-awakening of the kidneys.
Proper nutrition is also an important condition for the full growth of lilac. This plant needs almost all the basic chemical elements. Among them, nitrogen, phosphorus calcium, sulfur, iron, iodine, fluorine, zinc, and this is not the whole list. It is necessary to fertilize a bush when it reaches two years of age. Fertilize three times a year.. The first top dressing is done immediately after the snow melted. The second and third with an interval of twenty days. The ideal material for feeding is humus or rotted manure.