World flora is limitless and picturesque. It evolved over thousands of years, about the properties of some plants, scientists do not even suspect. It is easy for an ordinary layman to easily get lost in the variety of ornamental shrubs, flowers and trees. There are plants, whose names are truly surprising and puzzling.
Today on the pedestal is a low-growing ornamental shrub - dye drow. Also, several other names stuck to him: blood drake, chistik, teresa. In its wild form it grows in different regions of the immense globe, and more precisely in the Caucasus, in Western Siberia, Kazakhstan, and America.
You can meet the plant on hilly slopes, in forests, on sandy soils. Due to its aesthetic appeal, it is often planted to beautify garden plots. They loved the shrub not only for their external beauty, but also for their healing properties, which will be mentioned in the material.
The representative flora dye dye (photo clearly shows the plant) belongs to the legume family. It is no more than 1.5 meters in height, attracts with bright yellow color of flowers, thin spreading branches, oblong, slightly shiny leaves. All subspecies of this group, and their official science knows about 100, perfectly tolerate drought and blackout. This culture quickly dies from severe frosts and excess moisture.
The gorse dying: landing and care
Among landscape designers this bush is very popular. It harmoniously fits into any interior, combines with other types of representatives of the flora, plant trees and trees on nondescript stony slopes and hillocks. It feels great in dark places, but the flowering will be scarce. It is advisable to plant in open space, where there is a lot of direct sunlight to get a beautiful decorative result.
For reproduction, cuttings or seeds are used. After sowing, the culture is growing rapidly, especially during the first three years. Call it a long-lived can not: the life of no more than 10 years. Significant care is not required for shrubs. Nevertheless, it is necessary to regularly water, drain the soil and fertilize with potassium, sulphate, woody substances. In regions with strong frosts, the plant should be covered in winter, otherwise it will simply die. In the fall branches should be cut, it contributes to better flowering in the summer months (June-August).
Even if you do not get your own garden, you can grow shrubs on the windowsill. Due to the shallow root system, the plant survives well in a small pot. The three-year bush should be transplanted into the ground, and the seeds sown to obtain a young culture.
Those who have at home or on the site Drok dyer, can stock up on medicinal raw materials. To this end, the upper branches are cut with buds during the period of active flowering, fruits and rhizomes. Crop carefully dried under a canopy. The finished raw materials should not be present rotten and dark parts. Store medicinal preparations in closed cardboard, tissue or glass containers for approximately 12 months.
What is the use?
No one can precisely name the complete biochemical composition, since it has not been thoroughly studied. There is credible evidence that the wood dye is replete with valuable alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and essential oils. All parts are enriched with chemical elements, pigments and vitamins.
These substances give the right to call the shrub medicinal raw materials for healing the body. Leaflets and roots can be brewed and used as a diuretic, laxative, soothing drug. Accepted in complex therapy as a vasodilator, choleretic and antibacterial agent. It helps to significantly strengthen the weakened health, to clear from toxins.
Dropper: an application in alternative medicine
Respectfully relate to the culture of homeopaths. They make decoctions on the basis of ground parts and use for allergic reactions, dermatological pathologies, gout, headaches, thyroid and heart diseases. Herbal raw materials treat rheumatoid diseases and respiratory diseases, including asthma.
The gorse dyeing has proven itself in the treatment of nervous, gynecological, dental and urological disorders. There is evidence that it is used in oncology, but this information is not scientifically confirmed. Here are some recipes based on an ornamental plant.
The infusion is made from a dessert spoon of dry branches and flowers, as well as a glass of boiling water. Drug liquid is infused in a thermos or other closed container for two hours. Then filtered. Drink 15 grams 15 minutes before meals three times a day.
This infusion helps to remove inflammation in the body, normalizes digestion, has a laxative and diuretic effect. They rinse the mouth and throat, apply compresses for fungal, infectious and viral skin diseases.
Helps to improve the work of the digestive tract, improve the appetite, strengthen the defenses and give vitality. To do this, take a weak red wine in the amount of a liter and a large spoonful of dry roots (chop). Connect the two components, insist ten days. The drug can be given to children from three years to 10.
Undoubtedly, the grass gorse dyed conceals a lot of advantages. However, you should know that taking national drugs is possible only under the strict guidance of a doctor. The plant is considered poisonous; if used improperly, it can seriously harm: cause intoxication, gag reflex, nausea, pain in the abdomen, dizziness, migraine. Hallucinations, pressure rise to a critical point, convulsions and respiratory arrest are not excluded.
The use of drow drow
Due to its decoration, the Gorse plant is actively used in modern landscape compositions. It can also be found in urban parks, in the garden at the dacha plots. In addition to external beauty, this plant is popular in traditional medicine.
For the treatment of various ailments all parts of the gorse are used (flowers, fruits, roots, stems and leaves).
The choleretic, fortifying, antibacterial, soothing, hemostatic properties of the plant are well known. Herbalists prepare various infusions that are used to treat thyroid ailments, uterine bleeding, arthritis, rheumatism, liver diseases, etc. The main thing to remember is that the plant is poisonous, so it should be used very carefully, strictly following the recipe and after consulting a doctor.
Growing dye gorse in the garden is not that difficult. The plant is unpretentious, so take care of him is quite simple. It is important to properly land.
Planting shrubs in open ground is best in spring or early September.
You need to determine in advance with the landing site. To maintain a high decorative and abundant flowering, shrubs need to be planted in well-lit areas.
Relative to the ground, the gorse responds poorly only to acidic soils. There are no restrictions on fertility. Under natural conditions, the plant feels great on poor soils. Therefore, infertile plots are an ideal place to plant this shrub, which, unlike other garden plants, will not only grow well, but will also be pleased with abundant flowering. As a fertilizer, it is recommended to plant a little dry lime before planting a gorse in the planting pit, thereby reducing the acidity of the soil. Also, the bottom of the pit must be filled with a drainage layer, about ten centimeters thick of stones and river sand. The size of a landing hole directly depends on a sapling root system. After planting the gorse, it is necessary to pour and hummer the root circle with humus or peat.
At first, the shrub must be regularly watered. With growth, watering is reduced, it is carried out only on hot dry summer days. For the rest of the time, an adult bush provides itself with moisture from the soil quite independently.
Regarding fertilizers, the shrub needs spring fertilization with phosphate and potash fertilizers.
Spring pruning shrubs. It consists in removing damaged, dried shoots and cutting out old branches in order to rejuvenate the gorse.
In the fall, wilted inflorescences are removed and the shoots are shortened a little. This allows you to stimulate abundant flowering next season.
Although the gorse dyer is considered to be frost-resistant, it still needs shelter for the winter, especially for young specimens. It is necessary to spud the roots with earth mixed with peat or humus, tie the branches and wrap in sackcloth or agrofibre.
Also note that if the shelter for the winter was not carried out and the stems were injured, you should not panic right away. The plant is fully capable of restoring them on its own and even blooming will please you, except that its abundance can be somewhat reduced, because some of the forces will be spent on building up young shoots and restoring the stems.
The gorse breeds well with cuttings and seeds.
The cutting is carried out in the summer. In early June, cuttings of about ten to fifteen centimeters are prepared. The cut shoots in the lower part are removed all the leaves. Then the cuttings for twelve hours are placed in a solution of a growth stimulator, and then they are planted in the previously prepared soil from soil, humus and sand. Planted shoots on top covered with glass jars or cut plastic bottles. In this way moisture will be maintained. Cuttings need to be watered and ventilated regularly. When the young leaves appear, the shelter is removed.
Seeds for breeding can be bought or collected independently. After flowering shrub covered with fruits that ripen in late August or early September. It is necessary to select for planting not yet opened beans.
Crop seeds are planted in the spring directly in open ground. Flower beds are regularly watered. Young seedlings are best transplanted to a permanent place until the age of three, since older specimens do not take root well.
The gorse grown from seeds begins to bloom in the second year.
In general, the life span of the plant is about ten years. With proper care, all this time the gorse will be a real decoration of the garden, pleasing the eye with its bright colors.
The height of the shrub can reach 30 cm - 1.7 m. Its stems are either creeping or erect. The branches of the plant are covered with small leaves of oblong-lanceolate form. Their color is dark green. Flowering plant at the age of 3 - 6 years. In the first month of summer flowering begins. Inflorescences will remain on the sprigs 15 - 60 days. The fruits of the bush - beans, narrow, long form. In August, their maturation begins.
Variety of gorse
In total there are 125 different species of this shrub. Some varieties can be grown on the territory of Russia in the middle lane. Consider the most popular gardeners:
- Woodwax. This type of shrub can be found in the Middle East, on the territory of Kazakhstan, in Western Siberia. The gorse trowel is a low sprawling bush without thorns. It can reach heights of up to 1 meter. The shoots are creeping, not much branched. They are covered with narrow leaves of dark green color of oblong shape. The inflorescences of yellow flowers adorn the tops of young shoots. The first month of flowering - June. Duration of flowering 65 days. Fruits appear after pollination and have a narrow, oblate shape. Not so long ago, from the leaves and flowers of the drow drow received yellow paint.
- German gorse. This species loves warmth and does not like frost. The height of the shrub can reach 60 cm, width - 1.2 m. It begins flowering in June and lasts until August. In October, there are fruits. If this species of gorse is grown from seeds, then you should know that they are growing badly.
- Gorse Spanish is a spherical bush with prickles. Reaches a height of 50 cm. It blooms in several stages. In early June, bright yellow inflorescences open. In late August, the Spanish gorse blooms again, but not as abundant as the first time. This variety is frost resistant and can tolerate temperatures of -20 degrees below zero.
- Lydian Gorse especially prevalent in southern Europe. It is also resistant to frost and the temperature to -15 degrees is not terrible for him. The shoots of this species are creeping, the branches are covered with small dark green leaves that have an oval shape. It blooms brightly and abundantly from early April to late June.
Shrub propagated by two main methods:
- Seeds. They must be harvested after ripening at the end of the summer. The ripened fruit of the crayon dye acquires a brown tint and cracks itself. The obtained seeds must be dried and planted in the soil to a depth of 2.5 to 3 cm. After that, watering is necessary. The first shoots will appear in the spring. The first flowers will appear when the age of the plant reaches 2 years.
- Cuttings. They must be cut at the beginning of summer. The length of one apical stalk should be from 12 to 15 cm. Pretreatment before rooting is not needed. Seedlings need to be planted in a greenhouse or under a cap in the sand and peat soil. You should know that rooted only 30 - 40% cuttings.
To care for the bush, planted in open ground, is quite simple. The plant does not require special care, it will grow by itself.
It is important to choose the right place for landing. A gorse is best planted on a hill or hill. The soil for planting should be loose, well drained, contain a large amount of limestone and sand. Only young plants can be transplanted. By the age of 3 years, the root system of it is growing strongly, so it is simply impossible to transplant a plant without serious consequences.
The life span of the shrub is small. By 10 years its branches will be bare, stretched. Decorative effect of this decrease. Therefore, old plants must be replaced with young ones on time.
The gorse darling loves intense lighting, it is not harmed by direct sunlight.. Choosing a place to land, it is worthwhile to stay in an open area. If other plants give shade to it, then flowering will become scarce.
Gorse is not afraid of high temperatures. However, not all varieties tolerate frosts. It is recommended for the winter to cover the bushes with non-woven fabric or spruce branches. Actually it is for central Russia. If the winter is snowy and mild, then the plant can winter without shelter, but the upper branches can freeze slightly.
The bushes are drought tolerant, but do not like the excessive moisture of the earth. As a rule, natural precipitation will be sufficient. It is necessary to water a plant only at long absence of rains. In order to form a crown, should be pruned in early spring. The shape of the plants can be given any. When pruning spiky varieties, do not forget about the precautionary measures.
About useful properties
Parts of the dam plant of the dye contain many useful substances: essential oils, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids. However, since the plant is not well understood, it is not used in official medicine.
In folk medicine, decoctions and tinctures are made from plant parts. They are used as diuretics, laxatives, fortifying, sedatives. Preparations from the gorse help to cleanse the body of toxins and slags, help heal wounds, destroy skin infections. The plant is effective in rheumatism, hepatitis, malaria, sore throat, stomatitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis.
The juice of this plant helps to get rid of warts, papillomas. The required area should simply be processed juice. It is important to remember that there are also toxic substances in a gorse, therefore treatment abuse is prohibited. Children, pregnant and lactating, hypertensive patients should not take drugs containing gorse.
Gorse - garden decoration
It is widely used in landscape design.. Its bright flowers are able to decorate any area. At the entrance to the house you can plant small bushes or trees. Low-growing or creeping varieties can be used to decorate hills, slopes on the south, southeast side. It is used to strengthen the soil. The rhizome of this plant will help in preventing shedding of the earth.
Gorse you can decorate rock gardens, rockeries, mixborders. Composing the composition, it should be remembered that the gorse is perfectly combined with trees and shrubs, such as elecampane, juniper, yew, barberry, cotoneaster, buzulnik. Plant Gorse is a beautiful perennial flower that does not require special and complex care. It is important to choose the right variety and follow the recommendations when caring for it.
Description of Spanish Gorse
This plant has thin rounded branches, which tend to the ground. Because of their green color, they give the shrub an evergreen look. The leaves on the branches are small, oval-shaped. Осыпаются практически сразу после распускания, чего не скажешь о цветах — они не опадают сами, их необходимо удалять специально.Last year's growth should be removed in March - it is cut 5 centimeters higher from the old trunk.
Spanish gorse looks very nice in group plantings. Therefore, it is used in landscaping cities and country houses.
This plant loves light and tolerates arid weather. To freeze, maybe at - 15 degrees, but then quickly releases new shoots. If you grow it in the middle lane, then it should be appropriate care in the winter. It simply needs to be well wrapped from frost.
Spanish gorse feels good on strong sun, dry terrain and on steep slopes. Because it has a well-developed root, and its main part goes deep into the ground.
In the spring it needs to be fed with mineral fertilizers with the addition of the necessary trace elements. In the summer, wood ash will help. Sand, compost and gravel are also suitable. The plant propagates with seeds, and cuttings are also used for this.
Due to the strong aroma of flowers they are used to produce essential oil. It is used to relax the muscles. In addition, the essential oil of the Spanish gorse is used in aromatherapy as a sedative. With it, you can relieve stress, anxiety, depression. It is also used in cooking as a seasoning. The fibers of this plant were used in the manufacture of yellow textiles.
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direct sunlight, scattered sunlight
Gorse (Genista) - compact shrub of the legume family with very beautiful and abundant flowering. In nature, there are more than 100 species of gorse, among them there are shrubs, and lianas, there are prickly varieties. Droki are drought-resistant and light-requiring, as in natural conditions they grow mainly in open and stony landscapes.
Distributed in Russia woodwax(Genista tinctoria). The name is associated with its economic use: a dye for fabrics was obtained from this plant. The bush usually reaches a height of 60-80 cm, grows quickly. The leaves are small, dark green, leathery. The flowers are bright yellow, odorless, collected in small racemes. Flowering in June-July, long (40-60 days). Fruits - beans, ripen in August. Self-seeding plant practically does not.
Varieties of gorse dyer
Royal gold - compact, with a rounded dense crown up to 50 cm wide. The flowers are golden yellow, the inflorescences are long.
Compacta - bush upright, undersized, yellow flowers.
Varietal wood grasses are rarely available for sale, therefore mainly species are grown in gardens.
Feels best on poor soils, including sandy and calcareous, does not tolerate acidic. On fertile soils, plant development is inhibited. The main condition for decorative gorse is good lighting, shading tolerates, but blooms much less effectively. It can withstand flooding with melt water, but with constant waterlogging, it dies.
Planting a gorse and caring for him
Gorse transfers a transplant only at a young age, the optimal landing time is early spring or August-September. It practically does not need watering, young plants can be watered in a strong drought. Gorse (with the exception of compact varieties) is not afraid of weeds and can grow with strong sodding. It is desirable to mulch the soil with fine gravel or expanded clay. Feed gorse can be phosphate-potassium fertilizers or wood ash. He does not need nitrogen supplements: like all legumes, this plant has the ability to fix nitrogen even on the poorest soils. Gorse tolerates shaping haircut, but perfectly preserves the decorative and without it. Necessary sanitary pruning and rejuvenation of the bush, which is the gradual removal of branches older than 3-4 years. The winter hardiness of the gorse is rather high, but in the winters with little snow it can freeze slightly, so a light shelter is recommended in the middle lane.
Other types of gorse
Occasionally in the gardens you can meet the southern woods, especially d. lancet(G. sagittalis), featuring a low height (up to 30 cm) and a flat shape of shoots. It can be used for rock garden, but for the winter the plant will require shelter. The same goes for d. whitish(G. albida) - dwarf plant with a height of 15-20 cm with silvery pubescence on the underside of the leaves.
In the southern regions often found Spanish gorse(Spartium juniceum)which, during the flowering period, looks unusually attractive: the branches are almost devoid of leaves, the flowers are bright yellow, like moths. In the middle lane, this species does not hibernate.
Features of growing
The shrub is not whimsical in care, so it is easy to grow. Plant is planted in open ground in spring or early autumn. It is important to choose the right place for landing. In order to have a high decorative effect and abundant flowering, it is recommended to plant a flower in brightly lit garden areas.
Fruiting shrubs on different soils. It is not recommended to plant it on sour soil. Most often, the dyeing broom lands on bad places.
Before planting, a small amount of dry lime should be placed in a pit dug for the plant to reduce the acidity of the soil. Additionally, it is recommended to lay out the bottom of the pit with drainage using stones or river sand.
The size of the pit for planting a gorse depends on the root system of the seedling. After the plant is planted, it must be watered and mulched with peat or humus.
Features plant care
It is usually planted with a red dye on a slope or hill. Landing is carried out in a drained soil with limestone and sand. Transplantation is carried out only with young plants. After three years of growth in one place, the roots root so much that it is already impossible to transplant a flower.
After 10 years of growth, the gorse is pulled out, and its branches become bare. The plant loses its decorative effect. Therefore it is recommended to plant new seedlings on the site of old bushes.
The summer heat to a flower is not terrible, but frosts are dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to cover a gorse for the winter with the help of a lapnik or non-woven material. During snowy, mild winters, the gorse may winter without shelter, but its upper branches may freeze slightly.
The shrub can do without irrigation, as it usually lacks natural precipitation. But, if the rains were not too long, the bush is best watered.
To form a crown, it is recommended to prune the shoots. The procedure is usually carried out in early spring. Thick thickets are pruned so that they acquire a beautiful original shape. Thorny varietal varieties are trimmed very carefully so as not to hurt the hands with spines.
Seeds for breeding a gorse are either collected or bought in special stores. After the bush has blossomed, fruits begin to form in the place of flowers, which, after ripening, in September, are filled with seeds. For planting it is recommended to take non-expanded beans.
Planting shrub seeds is carried out in the spring directly into open soil. Flower beds it is important to water regularly. Young plants are transplanted from time to time until they reach the age of three years. Then the transplant is no longer carried out. A drowse, sown from seeds, blooms in the second year after planting. If you properly care for the shrub, it will beautifully decorate the garden with its bright flowering for ten years.
To create healing tools going to flowers, rhizomes, grass plants. The aboveground part of the gorse is harvested during the flowering period, and the roots - in the fall. Dry raw materials outside in the shade or indoors with constant airing. The collected collection is kept for no longer than one year.
The plant stops blood, strengthens the immune system, dilates blood vessels, destroys bacteria and microbes. The bush consists of alkaloids, essential oil, glycosides, tannins, organic acids.
The gorse dyer is used to prepare drugs that help with hepatitis, rheumatism, allergic dermatitis, malaria, stomatitis, sore throat, bronchial asthma. Fresh sap plants are often used for warts and papillomas.
When you can not use parts of the shrub in medicine
Since the shrub is considered a poisonous plant, it should be taken strictly according to the dosage specified by the doctor. Funds with gorse prohibited from hypertension, pregnancy, heart disease, severe liver disease. If you exceed the recommended dosage, poisoning by gassing occurs, which manifests as headache, nausea, dizziness or vomiting.
- Flower growers appreciate the gorse for its brightness and profusion of flowering. Bushes or small trees are planted singly near the entrance to the house or along the fence.
- Creeping or undersized species of gorse are used to decorate rocky slopes. Due to the branched rhizome, the plant remarkably strengthens the soil, so it is used to prevent shedding of the soil.
- The drowning gadget often draws out rock gardens, rockeries, mixborders. Best of all the bush looks with tree-shrub plants planted next to it. The gorse is usually planted with juniper, dogwood, yew, barberry, pommel.
Now you know how planting and caring for dying drowns happens, as well as what other types of plants are available. With proper care, the plant develops remarkably, blooms profusely. The positive characteristic of the healing properties of the shrub allows you to use parts of it to create medicines.