Ficus gained fame as one of the most unpretentious and undemanding to the care of domestic plants. Common ficus belongs to mulberry trees and in nature can reach a height of 30 meters. What we see in our apartments is bonsai, which have been given the right shape by caring hands.
Few people know how to care for the ficus, so that it pleases the eye with a pleasant, well-groomed appearance. In the literature, when describing a dull office, we certainly stumble upon a description of a dusty ficus in the tub, which illustrates bureaucratic and clerical "comfort."
Not so look home, well-groomed ficuses. In nature, there are more than 100 species of ficus, about 20 species have taken root as domestic plants. Classic ficus large-leaved - just one of the options for home ficus.
Care for ficuses and really simple, but you need to follow simple rules:
- Ficus is a tropical plant and for normal growth it is necessary to provide sufficient lighting. In this case, it is desirable to avoid direct and scorching sunlight and heating devices that dry the plant. If natural lighting is not enough - take care of sunlight lamps.
- All ficuses love humidified air. Spray the plant with cool water once a week in a humid climate or more often with dry air.
- Do not transfuse the plant. One watering per week will be enough.
- Correct soil with alternation of fertile and sandy layers is the key to longevity and plant health. The soil should be loose and moist. In this case, it is impossible to simply loosen the ground because of the tenderness of the roots and the danger of rotting of the roots in case of damage. The alternation of layers of the earth provides the necessary looseness and air flow.
- Replace the ficus as it grows. An adult plant can live in one tub for years, but one should not forget about top dressing and periodic soil replacement.
- The formation of the crown, cropping and tweaking - an important point of care for the ficus. To form a crown, choose early spring or autumn, when the ficus is not fully awake after winter or goes into hibernation. Cut the shoots to the desired height using shears or a sharp knife. You can not just break off or tear off the branches. Several new shoots will appear at the site. Benjamin Ficus needs to be plucked several times throughout the year - this will provide a lush beautiful crown. Otherwise, Benjamin will give several skinny long shoots and will resemble, rather, a willow bush. Cut thin shoots and achieve a beautiful thick crown. Do not forget about feeding plants and be sure to treat slices with potassium permanganate from rotting.
- A ficus placed in perfect conditions is practically eternal and not killed. You can forget to pour it on for 2-3 weeks, let it get covered with dust, put out cigarette butts in it, pour out coffee and cognac in the tub, the adult ficus will continue to grow, not paying attention to such trifles. A young plant from maltreatment is likely to die.
What loves ficus as a top dressing
For ficuses ideally friable subacidic soils are ideal.
As a top dressing, we recommend using a special top dressing for ficus, to stimulate growth, top dressing “for rose bushes” is suitable, if nothing is present, you can use any concentrated top dressing for indoor plants - they are by default made for acidic and weakly acidic soils.
The best mineral fertilizers for ficuses are nitrogenous. As a potash feed, you can use wood ash, ash.
Signs of ill ficus:
The ficus sheds leaves, leaves turn yellow, fall off, dry leaves appear - the plant is in adverse conditions. Perhaps he lacks light or vitamins. Some ficuses, for example, Benjamin Ficus, shed their leaves for the winter. The fall of several lower leaves is a normal phenomenon for broadleaf ficus.
Faded, drooping leaves - the plant is not enough moisture, the air is too dry. Look for a flower near the battery. In dry air, ficus needs to be sprayed. Do not overfill the soil, ensure that the air is sufficiently humidified.
Ficus hates drafts. If you like ventilated air and a light breeze, better pick another plant.
The rotting of the trunk, the foul smell from the pot with the plant is a sign of mold fungus. It is necessary to cultivate the land and try to save the plant by transplanting it into a pot with the correct earth laid in layers.
Blackflies and other insects have chosen a flower pot. Quite often dense and nutritious leaves of ficus become prey to pests. Rub leaves regularly to detect problems on time.
If you find a pest, immediately treat it with a disinfectant solution against pests or with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate. Surprisingly, the bad habit of putting out cigarette butts in a tub with ficus can save the plant from mosquitoes. Most pests do not tolerate the smell of tobacco.
Transplanting and cuttings of ficus at home
Growing ficuses, including for sale - quite profitable business. Beautiful plants are in demand. Bush ficus or Benjamin's ficus can be bought at the store, but large-leaved ficus or common ficus can only be obtained from friends. Consider how to propagate ficuses.
It is not necessary to arrange a ficus farm, but to grow a beautiful ficus as a gift is not a bad idea. All types of ficuses reproduce well by cutting.
Choose a suitable cutting, at least one year old. For reliability, do not take the top shoots, the probability of their rooting is small.
Remove excess leaves on the handle. Only stem should be in the water.
Soak the cut in a glass of clean water for 2 hours, drain and change the water. Note that most ficus juice is poisonous and may even cause burns and an allergic reaction. Always do cutting and cutting only with gloves.
The term rooting of the cuttings of ficus in water is about 2 weeks. After the roots appear, plant the sprout in a small pot with loose fertile soil.
In a tub with a ficus, there must be a drainage. Layers of soil need to alternate - drainage, sand, fertile layer, sand again. Do not buy a tub "for growth". For the young ficus enough ordinary flower pot.
After a year, you can transplant it into a large pot for large plants, then, after about 3-5 years, you can plant an overgrown ficus in a tub or a large decorative vase.
The owners of this flower are always concerned about the issue of its flowering. Unfortunately, the ficus can only bloom in natural conditions. In the apartment such a phenomenon occurs in rare cases. This is a tropical plant, so for its flowering at home it is necessary to create a similar atmosphere.
Inflorescences are not particularly decorative, they resemble small "balls", empty from the inside. They are called Sikonyi, each of them has a hole into which the insect pollinator passes its proboscis. After pollination, Siconia becomes a druse.
I was able to get rid of ARTHROSIS AND OSTEOCHONDROSIS PER MONTH! Operations are not needed. Read more here.
And yet, some inexorable flower growers can make a plant bear fruit (see photo). To do this, they use the necessary lighting device. In addition, make every effort to care for a plant that has its own characteristics.
Main types of indoor ficuses
All types of ficuses that are grown indoors are different from each other, as well as from specimens growing in natural conditions.
- Ficus benjamina. On its graceful flexible stems are small dense leaves. The range of colors can vary from almost white to dark green. The leaves of some specimens have a motley pattern. They need special care. With a lack of light, water and minerals, this ficus will lose its attractive appearance. Most often in the house such kinds are bred: Daniel, Natasha, Midnight Lady.
- Rubber plant ficus. It is bred by lovers of large indoor plants. At home, the flower can reach a height of 2 meters or more. The plant has an erect trunk, large dense glossy leaves. This unpretentious flower can be kept in a semi-shaded place, you can not fertilize for a long time. To temperature conditions and the level of humidity it is not capricious. Typically, indoor plants acquire such species as the Black Prince, Belize, Robusta, Melanie, Tineke.
- Dwarf ficus. This particular type of plant resembles a creeping shrub. Thanks to its slender stems, it can curl upward on the support. The leaves in a heart-shaped form can be plain or variegated. This ficus grows slowly, mainly in spring and summer.
- Lyric ficus. Its name comes from the shape of the leaves, which resemble a musical instrument. They are very dense, leathery and have a dark color. Gray-brown barrel has a rough structure. Ficus flower requires a certain humidity and does not tolerate sudden changes in temperature. Also, it can not be kept in places where direct sunlight falls.
- Bengal ficus. This species of evergreen tree is rooted using aerial roots. It grows quickly and can reach a height of 3 meters. It has bright green leaves oval-shaped with light green veins. The plant is thermophilic, loves a lot of light, so it is installed closer to the window. During active growth it needs to be watered regularly.
Bonsai plant lovers are grown at home ficus microcarp. This miniature tree requires special conditions. When moving to a new location, it may lose all the leaves. However, in a few weeks, they will reappear on the flower.
At home, the easiest way to care for ficus benjaminwhich requires only regular watering and crown shaping. Therefore, many people prefer to breed exactly this type of plant.
If you want to achieve a flower height of 2-3 meters, you need to make every effort to care for him. In this case, the plant will climb to a height of 20 cm per year.
Air temperature and humidity
Ficus grows well at room temperature of 20-25 ° C. In winter, it can be maintained at 16-18 ° C, subject to limited watering. With a dry content, the plant will be able to survive the winter at 10 ° C.
Ficus' homeland is the tropics, so they need moist air. Particularly demanding on moisture ampelnyh view. At home, the ficus must always be sprayed with warm and distilled water. Sometimes you need to wipe the leaves from spraying and dust, then they will be beautiful and well-groomed.
Place to install the pot must be chosen in advance by all the rules. The fact is that this flower does not like to change its location. Some features should be considered:
- On the ficus should not get direct ultraviolet rays.
- There should not be any heating devices near it.
- Draft protection.
- The content of the plant with an average humidity.
Important! Once again do not disturb the plant.
For plants should buy soil with a neutral or weakly acidic medium (pH 5.5-6.5). You can prepare your own substrate. To do this, we take in the same ratio the following components:
For large plants, you can add 2 parts of sod land. Also, you can add broken charcoal to the composition, and lay gravel and expanded clay on the bottom. Drainage will help protect the roots from rotting.
After watering, it is necessary to give time for the earth to dry. At the same time, it is important not to wait until it is completely dry.
- In summertime, ficus needs more frequent watering (2-3 times a week). However, it is impossible to bring the soil to a strong waterlogging, as the roots and stem will begin to rot.
- In the autumn, when the heat subsides, watering is also 2-3 times a week, but the amount of water for irrigation is reduced.
- In winter, the pot is moistened once a week.
During active growth (March-September), additives are introduced into the soil 2 times a month. Feed the plant preparations with a nitrogen content (nitroamfoska). Also introduced natural fertilizers:
- wood ash,
- nettle infusion.
In the store you can buy ready-made mixtures containing trace elements necessary for the cultivation of ficus.
When growing ficus at home important and care and transplant. Determine the period of transplanting easily. The roots of the plant grow strongly and begin to crawl out of the drainage holes. In addition, after watering, the soil in the pot dries quickly. All these phenomena suggest that the flower needs a larger capacity.
For the first 4 years of life, plants are transplanted every year. Then, this procedure is done every 2 years. When transplanting the pot increases in diameter by an average of 4-5 cm.
- Before the change of indoor ficus, the soil in the pot is well watered. Then the root ball will be easier to extract from it.
- The top layer of the earth gently clean. At the bottom of the new pot lay out a layer of drainage, then pour a little soil on top.
- We take the flower out of the pot and lightly crush the ground from the roots.
- Carefully place the plant in a new container.
- We fill up the root system with the ready substrate, the buried plant to the previous level.
Important! Some ficus flower growers do not transplant in order to prevent it from growing much. In this case, the shoots are simply removed and a crown is formed once every 2-3 years. You can cut the roots when transplanting, and choose a small pot.
Watch the video ! Ficus care at home / How to transplant ficus
Damaged leaves and dry branches are constantly removed (sanitary pruning) to give the plant a beautiful look.
- To rejuvenate the plant and create a certain shape, some shoots make it shorter, and the crown itself is thinned from the inside and outside.
- Important! Ficus with the cut off the top will no longer grow.
- Pinching should be done when the flower reaches the desired height. At the same time, at least 5 leaves should be left on each branch.
- According to the rules, the twigs are cut at an angle, after which they are sprinkled with crushed activated carbon.
- Trimming is carried out in early April. To form the crown, cut the upper part of the ficus to form as many lateral branches as possible. To ficus was more elongated, you should cut the side shoots of 4-6 cm and pinch off the leaves.
- After 2 weeks, the flower can be fertilized.
- To give the ficus more pomp and stimulate the growth of young buds, it must be pruned and thinned every year.
At home, the ficus is propagated by two methods:
- Air layering.
Usually, use the first method, as it is easier and more effective. Although, some growers prefer to grow a plant in the second way. One and the other methods are effective.
- As a rule, grafting is carried out in the spring-summer period, when the plant is in the stage of active growth. If cuttings are cut from the apical shoots, they should be about 15 cm long. The cutting from the stem shoot must have at least 3 leaves.
- The cut on the cuttings can produce a milky sap. It can be removed by placing the twigs in warm, clean water. There is also a special tool that can be added to water. For example, the drug "Kornevin."
- We choose a container of the required size and fill it with a substrate, which includes soil, peat, sand or perlite. In such a soil, the young will develop well. The cuttings are planted to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. After that, we cover the pot with a transparent film. Thus, greenhouse conditions are created for plant development. Instead of the film, you can use plastic containers.
- A container with transplanted cuttings should be kept in a room with an air temperature of about + 25 ° C. This is the optimum temperature for growing young shoots of ficus. Mini teplichku sometimes necessary to open for ventilation, to prevent rotting of the cuttings.
- Roots appear in 30-45 days. After that, new ficuses are seated in flowerpots.
- For the application of this method, choose a quality smooth escape. The incision site must be cleaned from the leaves.
- A thin cutting tool makes two cuts between which there will be a distance of about 3 cm. A wooden match can be inserted into the cuts so that they do not grow together.
- The space between the two incisions is peeled. It is recommended to sprinkle this area with Kornevin powder.
- A sphagnum moss with a thickness of about 4-5 cm is applied to the prepared part of the trunk.
Important! Care must be taken to sphagnum was always wet.
- After some time, roots will sprout on this site and fill the moss. When they can already be felt under the dressing (sometimes they pierce it), the stem of the plant is cut a little below the new roots. The resulting stalk is planted in a separate pot.
Important! Both methods of reproduction of ficus are effective by 99%.
Watch the video! Ficus cutting
Pests and diseases
Как и большинство растений, фикус подвержен некоторым заболеваниям и нападению паразитов. Basically, an indoor flower can be infected with two groups of diseases:
Among the fungal diseases:
- black fungus on the leaves,
- gray rot
- black mushroom
- root rot.
She eats exclusively fresh juice of ficus. As a result, the leaves lose their former color, and then completely fall off. If you find a pest immediately proceed to the processing plants. You can wipe the leaves with a damp cloth moistened with a solution of soap or use Actellic. Enough 20 drops per 1 liter of water.
Important! Actellic is toxic, so safety measures must be observed.
To destroy the shield also suitable infusion of a mixture of garlic and soap, which is treated with a plant. After a day it must be completely washed from the mixture. This procedure is carried out up to 4 times. Between sessions they give a flower a rest for 5 days.
His presence can be determined easily. On the back side of the leaves, as well as between them, a spider web appears in white. It must be removed, and the ficus washed with water at room temperature. When infection is running, it is better to apply Actellic. In addition, it is recommended to increase the humidity in the room.
If the air in the room is too dry, the ficus may be at risk of being contaminated with a mealy bug. Most often he attacks old plants. A small concentration of insects can be easily removed by wiping the affected areas with a napkin or cotton pad dipped in a spiter. With a strong infection, you can use the drug "Karbofos", which has insecticidal properties. To do this, prepare a solution:
- in 1l of water,
- diluted 40 drops of funds.
The mealybug and spider mite is adversely affected by a soap and oil solution, which is easily prepared at home. To prepare the emulsion:
- take 1 liter of water
- 5 tbsp. any washing powder and diesel fuel,
- all mixed up.
The whole plant must be thoroughly washed with this emulsion.
Attacking the ficus, this parasite makes its leaves yellow, which further fall. You can fight with aphids with plain water and soap. When insects are found on the plant, it is necessary to take action immediately.
Tip! One of the most common means for the destruction of pests is Aktara.
It is much more difficult to treat a plant fungus. They appear mainly as a result of poor-quality care. Signs of fungal infection at the beginning of development are difficult to determine. In most cases, the disease is already manifested in the neglected form, when the flower is not treatable. However, you always need to fight for the life of your pet.
- Gray rot. The disease of fungal origin, which strongly affects the leaves of ficus. The fungus appears due to the high temperature of the air and excessive dampness in the room. In this case, you need to remove all the affected leaves, reduce the amount of watering. Be sure to often ventilate the room.
- Root rot. The disease, first of all, kills the root system. Ficus begins to acquire gray color, and then dies. To treat the plant with root rot is useless. In this case, a container with a sick flower should be discarded.
- Black Mushroom The main symptoms of the disease are black spots that appear on the leaves of the plant. The reason for the defeat of the ficus by this fungus is the release of harmful insects that have settled on it. Sticky liquid becomes an excellent medium for the appearance of soot fungus. In the end, the leaves just die.
Problems in the cultivation of ficus
- Slow development, yellow leaves - to feed the soil or transplant the plant.
- Why do ficus leaves fall - not correct watering, plant dislocation, little light, drafts, sudden change of temperature.
- Falling of the lower leaves. If old leaves fall, then it is a natural process. The remaining cases - it is a close pot, insufficient supply of nutrients, untimely transplantation.
- Twisted and shriveled leaves - the air in the room is too dry or the substrate is not sufficiently wet. Especially for ampelous species.
- The tips of the leaves become brown in color - high air temperature (above 25 degrees) in the room or a large amount of fertilizer is applied. Lyre-like and dwarf ficus are very capricious to dry soil, they immediately dry shoots with leaves.
- Dark spots and wrinkling of leaves - burns from the direct rays of the sun.
To ficus and you do not suffer from such problems, you must follow all the rules of growing this plant. Then the flower will not only please the eye, but also provide an opportunity to breathe clean air.
Watch the video! Ficus rubber care at home
Conditions of detention
Growing ficus at home will be a productive exercise, if properly approached to the implementation of basic recommendations for the care of the plant. In order for a flower called ficus with green or white foliage to begin to actively grow the vegetative mass, you will need to create a favorable microclimate in your home. You need to take everything into account: the intensity and duration of the lighting, the features of watering, the temperature in the room, etc. Find out how to properly care for the ficus flower, and it will decorate your home corner.
Room flower with large green leaves looks amazing, it is loved by many domestic growers. Be sure to place the pot with a plant closer to the western or southern window. However, do not forget to take into account the following point: the ficus is not too favorably perceived by direct sunlight, especially in the daytime. Excess lighting can transfer this flower, but white-green leaves can simply lose the brightness of the shade.
Houseplant ficus is recommended to highlight in winter. And all because with a lack of lighting the flower will begin to drop white leaves. Another important point: try not to move the plant pot too often. Otherwise, the ficus may partially shed white or green foliage.
How to grow a ficus at home? To do this, you should observe the key nuances of plant care. Of great importance is the correct temperature. Depending on the time of year, temperature indicators will differ somewhat among themselves.
For example, in the summer it is desirable that the temperature in the room was about 25-30 degrees. In winter, the ficus will not interfere with a little more coolness: a temperature of 16–20 degrees is the best option for a plant. Caring for ficus at home is primarily the maintenance of a warm and dry microclimate in the house. Remember the following important point for the care of indoor flowers: if the temperature in your apartment rises, it means that the plant will need much more light. This ratio must be maintained constantly. Whichever of the varieties of home ficus color you prefer, do not try to put a pot with a green specimen on a cold floor. In addition, it is harmful for the plant and sudden changes in temperature.
For ficus care is required at home, and efforts need to make a lot. However, this specimen can hardly be attributed to the fastidious plants. Growing home ficus certainly should include maintaining an average level of humidity in the apartment, up to about 70%. If during the summer period there are no problems with this, then in winter you should add a sprinkling of white leaves to regular watering. Since all sorts of heaters noticeably complicate the life of many home plants, you need to take care of the extra humidity in the room.
Virtually all types of ficus are demanding of moisture and regular watering. They should be frequent, but moderate (caring for a plant in the house will not be particularly effective if from time to time to fill a flower pot with water). If we are talking about watering in the summer months, the optimal mode - 2-3 times a week. With the onset of September, the frequency of soil moisture should be gradually reduced. By the winter, try to switch to a one-time irrigation of the substrate per week.
Do not wait until the top layer of soil is covered with a dry crust, but do not keep it overly wet. If we neglect this rule, the rhizome of room ficus will sooner or later begin to rot, and the condition of the plant itself will be detrimental. Homemade ficus with small leaves is recommended to be watered with soft and pre-settled water.
Fertilizers and bait
Ficuses of any varieties develop much more actively, if you do not forget to regularly apply fertilizer. In the event that you used ordinary earth mixtures for planting, you will need to feed them at least once every two weeks - from the beginning of spring until the end of summer.
It is not necessary to add nutrients to the soil during the winter period, as the overall microclimate in the apartment is not too favorable for the growth of the vegetative system, fertilizers will not stimulate the ficus to grow the vegetative mass.
Proper cultivation of home ficus is not only watering, fertilizer and sufficient lighting. Particular attention should be paid to the formation of the crown. An ordinary flower in the house you will not see anyone. But if you resort to the original technique of trimming a plant, you can get an amazing result. Among the variety of ways of forming the crown of ficus is the following options:
To grow green ficus with large or small white leaves according to the rules, be sure to start pruning it in spring. The procedure, carried out in the winter, can only harm the flower.
Protection against diseases and parasites
Even an ordinary green flower grown in an apartment often suffers from pest attacks, and is also more susceptible to the development of fungal diseases (black fungus, gray mold, foliage fungus, etc.). As for the parasites, the most dangerous species for domestic ficus are spider mites, nematodes, mealybugs, shchitovka, as well as aphids. Very often, a disease or pest colony is noticed by a florist too late.
If nothing is done in time, the plant can simply die. To avoid this, properly care for the flower, create favorable conditions for it, take comprehensive preventive measures. Then the white bloom on green leaves and other misfortunes will be not scary to the ficus.
Ficus in the house - good or bad?
This is the case when the plant not only decorates the interior, but also has a positive effect on the health of people living in the house. Ficus releases oxygen, absorbs carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide), and also absorbs various toxic elements from the air in the room. If you live in a big city, where, as you know, the ecological situation leaves much to be desired, then the purchase of a ficus becomes particularly relevant.
Can I keep a ficus at home? Quite a lot of reviews can be heard about the special positive energy of this plant, which favorably affects the mood of the inhabitants of the house. However, before you bring a ficus into the house, you should eliminate the occurrence of an allergic reaction to it. You should also know that some varieties of ficus can aggravate the condition of people with asthma.
Rubber-bearing species secrete poisonous milky juice, so try to keep it out of your skin. Children and pets should also be kept away from similar plants, and it is better to plant safer varieties.
Many growers are interested in - how does the ficus bloom? This interesting question worries not only newbies, the answer to it will be positive. Yes, the ficus blooms, but only in the wild.
Fruits of drupes in the wild
At the same time, the inflorescences of the plant are not particularly decorative, they are more like small “balls”, empty from the inside. They are called Sikonyi, each such ball has a small hole through which the proboscis of a pollinator insect penetrates. After this process, syphony becomes pollinated. For example, here is a favorite fig tree, which, incidentally, is also a relative of the ficus.
How to plant a ficus
Pre-select a suitable place for the plant:
- Where the direct rays of the sun will not fall on him,
- There will be no batteries and other heating devices (in the immediate vicinity),
- There will be no drafts
- Indoors will be the average humidity (not low!).
How to care for ficus? There are certain requirements, adhering to which you will be able to achieve brilliant results in the cultivation of this tropical guest.
Ficus are very fond of light, but they should be protected from the direct rays of the sun. In winter, it is recommended to use additional lighting so that the plants receive the necessary “dose” of light for at least 12 hours. By the way, if the ficus sheds leaves, the reason may be the lack of light. Periodically turn the ficus pot to the light source so that the crown develops evenly. Keep in mind that dark foliage varieties are much easier to respond to the lack of light than varieties with a motley color.
What air loves the ficus
We should not forget that the ficus comes from the tropics; therefore, it is thermophilic, does not tolerate drafts, nor does overcooling of the ground. For the same reason, it is not recommended to place a container with a flower on a cold floor. The optimum temperature for a plant in summertime is + 25 .. + 28 ° C, in winter +16 .. + 18 ° C. The lowest (albeit undesirable) temperature, which is allowed for the maintenance of ficus +10 .. + 12 ° C. If the ficus is in a cool room, then it should be watered less often. Varieties with motley foliage are harder to tolerate lower temperatures than their green counterparts.
This plant prefers high humidity, so regular irrigation of the crown with water from a spray bottle will appeal to him. Leaves from large-leaved representatives can be periodically cleaned with a damp cloth or sponge. So the plant will look more attractive (large leaves collect a lot of dust), and feel better.
The main condition is that the soil between waterings should dry out, but not dry out! Water for these purposes should be clean, separated, not colder than room temperature. In summer, the ficus should be watered more often and more abundantly than in winter. Despite the fact that this plant loves moisture, you should avoid over-wetting the soil - this is fraught with rotting of the root system and stems. In the summer, it is enough to water the ficus 2 or 3 times a week, but with the onset of calendar autumn, water volumes should be gradually reduced. Thus, by the onset of winter watering should be done 1 time in 7 days.
Fertilizers for ficus
Ficus is usually fed with natural supplements twice a month, starting in March and ending in September - this is the so-called period of active growth of the plant. Nitrogen-containing preparations are well suited as fertilizers, as well as natural ones - wood ash, nettle infusion. You can purchase complex mixtures of trace elements, designed specifically for ficus.
Ficus transplant at home
Another important condition for the proper maintenance of ficus - timely transplanting. If you notice that the roots are already peeping out of the drainage holes in the bottom of the pot, or the soil dries quickly after watering, this may be a signal that the ficus needs a new, more voluminous capacity. Until the plant is 4 years old, it is transplanted annually. After this age, the transplanting procedure can be performed once every two years. New soil can always be filled in a pot, if circumstances so require.
When can I repot ficus? It is better to do this in spring or summer to make it easier for the plant to take root in a new place. Be prepared for the fact that after transplantation, the growth of ficus slows down, and sometimes foliage may occur. This is a normal phenomenon, because the flower goes through a period of adaptation, its roots grow much slower in a large pot. The larger and wider the capacity, the slower the plant root system grows. Each subsequent pot should be 4-5 cm larger than the previous one. Particularly large ficus replace the top layer of soil, increasing its volume.
How to transplant ficus:
- We moisten the soil thoroughly so that the plant can be easily removed from the pot.
- We remove the top layer of soil, do it very carefully.
- At the bottom of the new reservoir we lay the drainage, sprinkle it with soil.
- Remove the ficus from the pot, remove the soil from the roots, move it to a new container.
- Next, fill the earth mixture, while the degree of plant penetration should remain at the same level.
By the way, if you want to limit the growth of ficus, then you do not need to replant it at all. It is enough to remove shoots once every two or three years and form a crown. Or, when transplanting, prune the roots and place the plant in a tight container.
How to trim a ficus at home?
First of all, you need to regularly remove dried leaves and branches (sanitary pruning). Чтобы омолодить растение или придать ему желаемую форму, укорачивать побеги и прореживать крону можно изнутри и снаружи. Главный стебель подрезается один раз в году, примерно на 20-30 см. Когда фикус достигнет требуемой вам высоты, можно производить прищипку. При укорачивании ветвей, на каждой должно оставаться как минимум пять листов.
Следует знать, что фикус со срезанной верхушкой больше расти не будет.
This ficus will not grow up - an example of incorrect and not beautiful trimming
It is better to make all sections cuts, the bottom edge should be located above the kidney.
How to cut a ficus at home:
- A garden pruner should be used, which is recommended to be pretreated with alcohol. You also need to stock up with crushed activated or charcoal for processing cuts.
- The trimming procedure is best carried out in early April.
- To form a crown, the upper part of the ficus is clipped - this technique provokes active growth of the lateral branches. If you want to give the plant a more elongated silhouette, then you should cut the side shoots (4-6 cm), as well as pinch off the leaves.
- As mentioned above, the tip is shortened once a year, the trunk is cut diagonally, the shoots are cut exactly.
- The juice that is released at the cut must be removed immediately with a damp cloth. The cut itself is treated with crushed coal.
- Ficus can be fertilized two weeks after the procedure.
To increase the density, as well as to stimulate the growth of young buds, the crown of the ficus can be thinned and trimmed annually.
Ficus without pruning - crown incorrectly formed ↑ to content ↑
Ficus benjamina - reproduction
There are two of the most effective methods of breeding ficus - cherenkov and air layering. The easiest one is a cherenkov, the second method is more intricate, but also very effective. I will describe them in more detail, and you choose which one you like best.
Reproduction of ficus cuttings:
- Cut the cuttings from the bush during its active growth - in spring or summer. With the apical shoots cut cuttings about 15 cm in length. If stem shoot is taken for reproduction, then it should have at least three leaves.
- In order to prevent dehydration of the cutting, its leaves should be rolled up into loose tubes and tied gently with a soft rubber band (for this you can cut a balloon).
- At the place of the cut, the milky juice is usually excreted; in order to remove it, it is sufficient to hold the cuttings a little in clean water at room temperature. You can also add to this water the drug "Kornevin."
- In a pre-selected container must be suitable soil mix. You can mix the earth with perlite or sand, add peat - this composition is quite suitable for plants. In this soil, you need to plant cuttings, deepening them by 1-1.5 cm, and then cover with cling film to create a mini-greenhouse. Also for these purposes, you can use the cut plastic bottles.
- A container with young ficuses is recommended to be placed in a warm room. The optimum temperature for rooting cuttings is approximately + 25 ° C.
- Periodically should be ventilated "greenhouse" to avoid rotting cuttings. The rooting process on average lasts about a month and a half.
After the specified period, young plants can be planted in pots.
Rooted cuttings of ficus Benjamin, photo:
How to propagate ficus at home with the help of aerial layering:
- You should choose a good upright growing escape, remove the leaves in the place where the incision will be made.
- Make a pair of cuts with a thin knife for cutting paper or a blade, the distance between them should be about 3 cm. In this place (between the cuts) remove the bark, you can additionally sprinkle the cut area with Kornevin.
- Attach to the prepared surface a moist moss-sphagnum, the thickness of the moss layer should be about 4-5 cm. Food film tightly wrap the sphagnum to the shoot and securely fasten. This moss should always be kept wet.
- Soon roots will appear in this place and sphagnum will be woven around. When the roots will be well felt under the polyethylene or even break it, the ficus stalk must be cut a little lower than the formed roots.
- Now the cutting can be planted in a separate container.
Both methods give good results and "work" at 99%.
Air layouts, photo:
Ficus diseases can be divided into two groups - fungal and parasitic origin.
For fungal diseases include:
- black fungus on the leaves,
- gray rot
- black mushroom
- root rot.
The parasitic can be attributed to the mealybug, spider mite, nematode, aphid, scythe, thrips.
Spider mite on ficus
When attacking parasites, you need to strike back as early as possible, but it must be admitted that it is very rare to save the plant. Insecticide "Aktara" is considered the best drug for combating parasites, as soon as you notice traces of pest activity, take action immediately. You can also use the funds "Actellic", "Confidor".
Ficus diseases of fungal origin most often arise from improper care of the plant. Too abundant watering and high temperature in the room can cause gray rot (botrytis), which is treated by removing all of the affected fragments and subsequent treatment with copper-containing preparations. In general, if a plant is damaged by a fungus, it is necessary to remove all diseased parts as early as possible, and then to treat it with an antifungal drug, for example, Fitosporin-M or Gamar (biological bactercid). But root rot, unfortunately, is not treated, the plant will have to be thrown away, and with the capacity in which it grew.
To provoke the appearance of diseases may be insufficient lighting, temperature drops, improper watering or oversaturation with fertilizers. Even the wrong place for a flower can contribute to the manifestation of disease. To nip the problem on the vine, you need to provide Ficus competent care, in fact, quite simple, which was described above. Preventive treatments also take place, the use of fungicides, along with proper care, provides good plant protection and significantly reduces the risk of disease.
Why do ficus fall leaves? The reasons for dropping the foliage can be different, for example, seasonal fall is quite natural with the onset of the cold season. If this happens in spring or summer, then, most likely, the ficus lacks lighting or watering is incorrect. Moving the pot from one place to another, temperature fluctuations or a lack of dressing can also provoke leaf fall. Diseases and parasites have already been said - they, too, are often the cause of dropping foliage. In any case, the first alarm signals should identify the cause and try to fix it as soon as possible.
Buying ficus in a flower shop, carefully inspect it for diseases and the presence of pests. The same applies to plants taken from familiar florist. It is best to place a new flower separately from others and endure for about a week. If no diseases or the presence of parasites are identified during this quarantine, a new inhabitant can be placed next to other indoor plants. If you follow all the rules, for many years your guest will be decorated with a tropical guest - a ficus. Care at home for this plant does not give you much trouble. The main thing is to do everything in a timely and competent manner.
This species is an indoor tree about two meters high. It has fleshy wide leaves 30 centimeters long and 15 wide. And the color can be of any color. Most often found with rich green, black or variegated leaves. Status of indoor plants, it received in the early XIX century.
Home view does not tolerate dusttherefore it is necessary wipe and spray regularly. Also, you should consider the features of watering. If the ground in the pot is too wet or dry, the leaves from the tree will begin to fall off. Despite this, the tree perfectly adapts to the new environment. And its maintenance and care will not be of great difficulty.
Basics of ficus care
The virtue of a plant is that it not capricious and easily adapts to various conditions of detention, including well tolerated and home. Llove the lighttherefore, the place he needs to allocate illuminated, but without direct sunlight. The best place will be wide windows facing west and east.
This flower loves heat and does not tolerate the wind. In the summer, it can be left in the house, without being afraid that he will die. Worth avoiding drafts.
The most comfortable temperature will be plus 15 in the winter and no more than 30 degrees in the summer.
Regular watering is good for the growth and health of this plant, but do not forget about some of the nuances of the irrigation technique. A lot depends on how correctly the care of the ficus is performed.
More intensive regular watering is needed in the spring and summer periods. But in the winter it is better to reduce the amount of water. Water the plant should be as the soil dries, avoiding cracks on its surface. Water should be lukewarm. In winter, you need to water the ficus no more than once every ten days.
Important! To determine the time of watering, you need to touch the ground in a pot with your fingers. It should crumble and not smear the tips of the fingers. If the land is such, then it is time to water the plant. But you can not fill it with water!
Experts recommend a break between waterings. This is necessary in order for the earth to dry out.
The main stages of transplantation
- It is necessary to water the flower copiously before pulling it out of the pot,
- Carefully remove topsoil,
- In the first pot lay out the first layer of drainage and cover with earth,
- Ficus get from the old pot and gently place it in a pot with drainage,
- Gradually add fresh earth or soil and, spreading around the ficus, condense.
It is impossible to deeply deepen a flower in a new pot. Its roots should fit freely in the prepared pot. Otherwise, you will have to replace the pot with a larger size. If this is not done, the flower will stop growing, because it will be closely located in a small pot.
The diameter of the pot should be five centimeters wider than before.
The growth of the flower root system depends on the size of the pot. After transplantation, the ficus will begin to grow roots and grow rapidly. To slow down growth, it is only necessary to prune the plant and place it in a pot of smaller diameter.
Ficus breeding methods
- Air slips,
- A handle with a leaf.
The most favorable breeding season for ficuses is spring and early summer. Do not forget about the lighting of the flower. Do not let direct sunlight fall on it.
Using first methodIt is important to consider the suitability of the young processes. DFor grafting, it is necessary to use lignified processes.
It is necessary to cut the stalk and rinse the cut with running water so that no juice is left on its surface. Be sure to dry the process by holding a few minutes in the air. If it is a tree-shaped ficus, then you need to take the upper shoots that have a bundle.
This method has earned its fame due to the rejuvenation of the plant. It allows you to effectively propagate the ficus.
How to care for lost age beauty ficus. To make the procedure, you need to remove one sheet and after making an incision, place a small wooden stick. Then, the incision site is covered with wet moss and wrapped in polyethylene, while leaving an interlayer for air.
After such a procedure in a month the plant takes root. When the moss is covered with roots, the film must be removed. At the end, cut off the top and, along with the roots, transplanted into a new pot.
Second way. Carry out cuttings in the spring and summer. For the preparation of planting material, I use a sharp knife to slant the top of the stem. All leaves are removed from it and placed in water.
In ficus with large leaves, the leaves appeared on the cuttings pruned.
The roots will appear after 2-5 weeks. It is possible to accelerate reproduction with the help of an improvised greenhouse. Immediately after the new leaves grow on the cuttings, it is time to replant the ficus.
Third way. With this method, one leaf is left on the cuttings. The shoot is cut off similar to cuttings. But here the sheet is folded and fixed in this position with a thread. Escape need to deepen into the ground to the ground.
A month later, the breeding process will bear fruit.
Pest Prevention Measures
- Quarantine new indoor plants,
- Wash the capacity of the flower using special means, after each removal it into the air,
- Keep the pot clean,
- Process the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate,
- Consider the distance of plants from each other.
Other harmful factors of the appearance and reproduction of pests can beimproper lighting, low temperature, dry air and lack of fertilizing.
To start a fight with the enemy, you need to carefully study it. After that, you can take the necessary measures to combat pests. The most common ficus pests are:
It can be found on the leaves, on the inside or on the stems. The outer side of the sheet is covered with yellow specks. This is due to the appearance of the web. Damaged leaves fall away.
In order to remove a common spider mite, it is necessary to turn on the treatment of the plant five times with pyrethrum solution. You need to do it once a week. Finish the treatment with the infusion of onions or garlic. And then the question - how to care for the ficus, will turn into a pleasant procedure.
Recipe for garlic infusion: take 1 tsp garlic and pour 1 tbsp. water. After leaving to insist day.
This pest violates the integrity of the shoots, breaking its skin. To defeat the tick of this species, you need to increase the humidity. The plant should be sprayed regularly. If the flower is already damaged, it is necessary to treat it with an insecticide.
On the leaves, these pests lay eggs. They damage the plant and slow down its development, feeding on the juice of ficus. In this situation, you need to use mechanical cleaning, and then spray tobacco extract. Leaves wipe regularly with alcohol.
The most common pest of many plants. They begin their reproduction in the warm period. From the young flower stalks they suck the juice. Flying on other flowers can infect them too. The ill ficus has yellow twisted leaves.
It can be cured with green soap, which is dissolved in a pyrethrum solution or in water.
In addition to pests, there is a natural threat to the life of plants. Namely - the disease. If insects can be killed by special means and solutions, the flower disease is treated differently, and it represents the highest threat to its life.
Very often, symptoms can be detected only at the peak of their development. Cure the plant becomes impossible.
Three ficus diseases
- Fungus injury. This disease occurs in weak colors. Brown spots appear on the leaves, over time the leaf falls. To remove these stains, carry out the spraying procedure.
- Gray rot. It progresses in a humid and warm environment. On the ficus mold is formed, which enters through the air. To remove it, you need to remove all damaged leaves and be sure to ventilate the room. During the treatment of the flower from the mold, it should be watered less often so that the earth can dry out well. If the water stagnates, there will be rot, which is hard to fight and the plant will have to be saved.
- Stalk and root rot. There is rot from the high humidity and low temperature of the soil in the pot. On the diseased plant, the leaves wither, gradually turn gray, and the roots begin to rot. When fighting rot, you need to transplant the flower in a dry environment, as it becomes impossible to cure it. It is better to take a pot, because the ficus grows high, with strong roots and requires a lot of space. Often you have to say goodbye to the plant forever.
Fulfilling all the conditions of the content of ficus, a lover of this plant, waking up in the morning, will long be happy with its growth and appearance. Caring for a ficus is not burdensome, so a good mood is ensured, even for a beginner. The ficus will be truly the king of your home!
Care for ficus at home
What rules of care for ficuses in the home should be followed so that these plants have a healthy appearance? How ficuses water, multiply? Where to place them better?
Ficuses should be placed in well-lit places. The abundance of light - the most important condition for the well-being of ficus. Species with dark green leaves tolerate more shading than variegated and do not like the direct sun. The variegated species can be placed in the open sun, shading on particularly hot summer days.
In the winter, during the short day, ficus needs additional coverage. The lack of light in winter is the main reason that leaves fall on ficus. It is advisable to purchase a special lamp and finish illumination of ficuses so that plants receive light for at least 12 hours a day.
For the formation of a beautiful crown in the period of active growth it is necessary from time to time to turn the plants with different sides to the light source.
This plant loves in high humidity.
- Хотя это условие и не является для него столь уж обязательным, желательно регулярно опрыскивать фикус или устраивать ему душ.
- Разновидности фикусов с большими листьями собирают много пыли, что мешает растениям правильно питаться, да и выглядит некрасиво.
Листья у таких видов нужно время от времени протирать влажной губкой.
На мой взгляд, первое правило в care for ficus at home - do not disturb once again and do not overdo it. What I mean. When I received a cutting of Ficus from a flower lover like myself, I immediately identified a permanent pot and a permanent place for it.
And so, after cutting the roots, it rooted it into a fairly spacious (but still not huge) pot. And immediately put this capacity to the place where it will grow constantly. After all, the main feature of the Ficus - they do not like a sharp change of location and frequent transplants. The result of your uncertainty may be loose leaves.
The second very important rule in the care of Ficus - the correct mode of watering. Also, water should be used only slightly warm and separated. If this flower is watered a little, the ground will dry up, and the leaves will also shrivel and begin to fall.
- But the overflow is also very harmful. Especially in winter.
- Its roots are vulnerable to a decrease in temperature and high humidity — when it is poured or watered with cold water, they can rot, resulting in the death of the entire flower.
- For the same reason, it is imperative to drain excess water from the pan.
It is necessary to water according to this principle - if the land mixture has dried on 1-2 phalanxes of the finger - it's time. For large specimens, it is permissible to dry the ground and to a depth of 6 - 7 cm.
In the wild, there are about 1500 species of ficus. At home, no more than 20 plants of different appearance are grown, which differ in the shape and color of the leaves. Each subtype has its own characteristics, but any ficus is an unpretentious plant that does not require much effort to grow. These plants can not bloom, but are indispensable for decorating and gardening apartments, offices and premises with a lack of natural lighting.
This type of bush indoor plant has a variety of shapes, height, color of branches and leaves. This flower is loved by many novice florists and people who are often away, because He is not demanding to care, has several advantages over his fellows:
- not afraid of drafts, such a plant will not lose the leaves when the air temperature drops,
- does not require frequent monitoring of watering. If you forget or it was not possible to water the plant, the ficus will not lose the leaves, they will wilt a little. After watering the plant quickly comes to normal
- undemanding to light: feels good in a darkened room, calm to diffused light and shadow. Under such a condition of residence, the rubber-plant ficus will have leaves slightly smaller in size than if it were in the light.
The art of growing large indoor plants in miniature is called bonsai. Few people know that a tiny tree can be made from ordinary ficus. It is best to begin to form bonsai in the winter - while the plant has a slow current of juice. This flower should have a thick foliage and a thick tree trunk, those signs that make it look like a real tree. Dwarf ficus has several types of crown, which is characterized by external differences:
- classic round shape
- in the form of a pyramid, when the broad crown on each side narrows at the top,
- cascade when all foliage has a slope in one direction.
To make a bonsai tree, you must unite the young ficus shoots in the trunk with a wire, wrapping them, starting at the base, up to the crown. In this position, the plant is no more than 7 months, after which the wire is removed. For beauty, branches sometimes bend, fixing them to the trunk. After the same period, they begin to grow in the right direction.
It is believed that bonsai in a mystical way affects the lives of people, their fate. These plants are endowed with mysterious properties and powerful energy. Owners of such flowers in the house, during long stays with bonsai, begin to see prophetic dreams, discovering in themselves the ability to predict the future. This tree helps in the realization of a person's thoughts about prosperity.
A ficus called microcarp has rounded, bright green leaves. This plant is very similar in its properties to Benjamin. They have the same care requirements that are easy to meet:
- Do not allow the soil to dry out, otherwise it will affect the condition of the leaves. He will not throw them off like Benjamin, but they will wilt and become dull,
- does not like direct sunlight and shaded areas, so you need to settle such a ficus in a well-lit place,
- do not allow drafts on the plant, otherwise it will get sick,
- it is necessary to cut the crown as the branches are pulled out in order to give neatness and fluffiness.
The most spectacular and original plant of the entire family - ficus lyroid. The main feature of this tree are large, shiny leaves with prominent light streaks. The root system of lyre-like ficus is very powerful, capable of storing water, so it is unpretentious in irrigation, a slight overdrying of the earthen coma around the roots is allowed. At home, this large-leaf plant grows to two meters, so it is great for decorating residential and office premises.
If you are thinking about buying a potted tree, then keep in mind that all types of ficus are happy to grow in apartments. They will give not only visual delight to their owners, but also clean the indoor air. For the successful cultivation of these plants, you need to know how to properly care for the ficus at home. This does not require much effort: only a few peculiarities are important in observing the irrigation regime, pruning branches and leaves.
At any time of the year, the ficus loves moderate watering, it is impossible to “pour out” the plant, otherwise it will get sick and die. Moisten the soil should be when its top layer is completely dry. It is impossible to say with certainty how many days it will happen: the speed of dehydration depends on the temperature in the room. Watering should be done approximately once every 7 days with warm, settled water. The drained liquid must be poured out after half an hour after the procedure.
Once in 15-30 days it is necessary to arrange a light shower for indoor plants, with the help of warm water. For this, the plants are transferred to the bathroom and watered from the shower head. Thanks to this procedure, dust is washed off the leaves and branches. If they have insects or pests, they will also be washed off. After the shower, the plants should stand in the bath so that the water is glass, then send the flowers in place. From such procedures leaves become glossy, well-groomed.
To your ficus had a dense foliage and a neat appearance, it is necessary to conduct regular pruning of regrown thin branches. Look closely at your plant from all sides: you will see that there are several branches without leaves or half-naked. In order to revive and wake the sleeping buds on the plant, you need to pinch (cut off) the young light green shoots (leaves) that frame the ficus. This procedure should be carried out several times a year as needed. After pruning after a while, long-awaited leaves will start appearing on bare branches.
How to transplant
Ficus should be transplanted once a year. It should take a pot a little larger than the previous one: this requires the growing root system of the plant. To carry out this procedure should be in the spring or early summer. For the transfer of ficus will need the following materials:
- flower pot with a small drainage hole
- special soil for ficuses,
- drainage pebbles.
How to transplant ficus:
- Remove the flower from the pot along with the earthy ball.
- Clear off the old soil. If the ground is too tightly grabbed on the roots, then remove only the top layer.
- At the bottom of the pot to put the clay in one layer.
- Pour the first layer of earth into the pot and tamp it with your fingers.
- Set the flower in a new pot, while adjusting the amount of ground.
- Sprinkle the soil, fill in the empty places, make sure that the plant is standing exactly. Press each layer lightly with your fingers.
- If you use the store soil from the package, then you do not need to water the plant after planting. Wait until the top layer dries.
If the flower sheds leaves
Yellowing and dropping a small amount of lower ficus leaves is normal in the fall, which suggests that the flower is preparing for a new growing season. If you notice abundant abundance, then this is a sign of unfavorable conditions in the apartment, it’s time to take measures and save the ficus:
- Observe the temperature regime for this type of plant - not lower than 15 ° С and not higher than 23 ° С, then the leaves will cease to fall.
- Eliminate drafts in the place of residence of the ficus.
- If there is not enough light in the room, this becomes one of the reasons for the foliage to fall. In this case, you need to connect an additional source of artificial lighting.
- Dry air in an apartment does not rarely cause the plant to drop foliage, so during the heating season and in the hot summer, spray your pet more often, arrange bathing with the help of a shower.
- Lack of vitamins provokes the discharge of leaves. It is necessary to add a top dressing - fertilizer for ficuses to cure a flower.
When creating favorable conditions for the cultivation of ficus, these plants rarely get sick. There are cases of plant contamination by pests from other indoor plants or during transplantation, from new, non-qualitative soil. The most common diseases are:
- Mealybug - quickly affects broadleaf plants, being transferred to nearby flowers.
- Trips - settles on the leaves in hot rooms with humid air.
- Root rot is a fungal disease that occurs during excessive watering, when the soil does not have time to dry.
- Aphid - a frequent guest on the leaves of indoor plants, appears in the spring. Ficus is infected with it from palm trees.
- Spider mite - actively reproduces when the air in the room is too dry.
Video: how to care for flowers
After watching a selection of videos, you will learn how to properly care for ficus at home. Valuable tips will be useful to all lovers of these plants. An experienced grower will tell you how often to water the ficus Melanie so that he does not get sick and throw off the leaves. You will learn all about how to plant and breed houseplants. A biologist will show which pot is needed for ficus during transplantation.
Ficuses come from the tropics, so they need vital air. Especially the ampel varieties of this plant. Care for ficus at home involves the mandatory spraying. Ensure that the water is warm and soft (separated). When spraying leaves on the leaves traces of water? What to do? - It is necessary from time to time to wipe the leaves with a damp soft cloth. This will save the plant from dust and give the leaves a beautiful look.
Most Ficus easily tolerate light partial shade. They are even more harmful direct sunlight. But variegated forms - for example, Ficus Benjamin prefer to grow in the light. Another thing is that this light must be diffused. Otherwise, the leaves can get burned.
In winter, any types of Ficus require additional lighting using fluorescent, mercury or sodium lamps. Otherwise, they shed their leaves.
For active growth, especially during the growing season, Ficus requires additional feeding. In spring and summer I use nitrogenous fertilizers. It helps to build up more green mass to make the flower lush and beautiful. By the way, if your home ficus has dropped the leaves, then a good feeding will help in its rehabilitation.
You can use the "home fertilizer": infusion of wood ash, mullein or nettle. And you can use ready-made mineral complex fertilizers: Humisol (I use them), Ideal, Palma, Ficus and others.
Frequency of fertilization: 1 time in 10-14 days. It is not necessary to fertilize in winter. The exception is if you provided Ficus with the same conditions as in summer (additional lighting, humidification, warm air). But even then you need to feed 1 time in 1-2 months, and even then half the dose indicated on the bottle.
Home Ficus are prone to various diseases. Most often they are affected by spider mites. Therefore, as a preventive measure must be sprayed. And I sometimes give Ficus a warm shower.
The conclusion is: Caring for a ficus at home requires some knowledgeand most importantly - compliance with the rules. And then there will be no problems at all. In the end, Ficus grow even in public institutions, and in your home they will certainly grow and delight with their appearance.
How often should water
In the period of intensive growth ficus will need a lot of water. From spring to autumn, the plants must be watered regularly, but the water in the pan should not be constantly present, otherwise the roots will rot. In early September, watering is gradually reduced, and in winter it is enough to water once every ten days.
Ficus feeding is done from spring to early autumn - once every two weeks. To do this, it is better to use natural fertilizers such as mullein, wood ash and nettle infusion.
How to transplant a ficus
Ficuses are transplanted once every 2 years. It is better to do in the spring. A mixture of soil, sand and peat is used as a substrate for transplantation in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. When transplanting, the ficuses are first well watered, and then, by the method of transshipment, they are determined in larger containers.
Do not use too large containers. It is better to replant in close pots. This will limit the growth of the plant, which is more acceptable for home conditions.
Self-reproduction, or how to propagate the ficus correctly
Ficus multiply with seeds, cuttings and layering.
Seeds are sown in the spring in a prepared bowl. Landing is done shallowly and then the plates are covered with glass. Contain crops in a humid environment. The glass is removed twice a day for 30 minutes to air the crops.
- As soon as the first sheets appear, the plants dive. The composition of the soil should include leaf ground and some river sand. Ficus grown up are seated in separate pots with a diameter of 7 centimeters.
- Top cuttings are propagated in late spring or summer. A freshly cut stalk for 5-7 cm sits in a pre-prepared soil. At the same time apply phytohormones.
- Air layouts breeding ficuses produced from May to September. Just below the sheet, an incision of 5 mm is made from the bottom up.
- Wet the match dipped in a special hormonal powder for grafting and insert it into the cut. This is done to ensure that the incision is not closed.
The prepared place is wrapped in wet moss and tied up with tape. Top cover everything with a film. After a few months the roots will break through the moss. In the lower part of the roots, the petiole is cut off and thus the material for planting a new plant is obtained.
Why leaves fall at the ficus
Sometimes ficus leaves may fall off. The reason for this may be excessive watering or changing places. In the first case, due to an excessive amount of moisture the roots rot, and the leaves become wilted lifeless and fall off.
As for the second case, it has long been known that the ficus perceives badly a change of place. He suffers from shock, which leads to dropping leaves. Be sure to follow the lighting in the room where your plant. With a lack of light, the plant growth slows down. Leaves may also fall due to low temperature and drafts.
What you need to pay attention
Do not buy plants in the fall or winter. Adaptation during this period is much more difficult. Do not buy too large copies. Older plants more difficult to adapt to new conditions.
- Look through the drain hole at the ficus roots.
- If they are black or dark brown, then this plant is not worth taking.
- When buying ficus, gently shake the plant or gently run it against the leaves.
- If at least two or three leaves fall, then it is better to purchase another plant.
Good luck with your choice.
Watching the video below, you can learn how to care for ficus in the winter
What is the ficus Benjamin
This is one of the most common species of this plant. He came to us from the countries of Asia and Northern Australia. In addition, this type of ficus serves as a symbol of Bangkok, the capital of Thailand.
- It got its name from benzoin (benzoin), which is obtained from the juice of this plant. Although some still believe that he owes his name to a certain indoor plant trader.
- In nature, the tree has a spreading lush crown and grows up to 25 meters. Also Benjamin Ficus became very popular among indoor plants.
- It became a hit in the interior floriculture, as it is beautiful and has many varieties.
Ficus species of Benjamin:
- Large leaves: Anastasia, Boucle, Bush King, Golden King, Golden Monique, Daniel, Midnight, Lady, Samantha, Irene, Exotica,
- Medium sized leaves: Curly, Kinky, Naomi, Naomi Gold, Starlight, Fantasy, Esther,
- Small-leaved (dwarf): Baroque, Wandi, Natasha, Nicole, Nina, Nina, Safari.
Leaves can differ not only in size, but also in color as well as in shape.
Small-leaved compact tree with a thick crown. Ветки Фикуса Бенджамина у старых растений, 8-10 лет, поникают, и придают деревцу особую привлекательность. В домашних условиях вырастает до 1,5-2 м в высоту.
Удивительный и оригинальный Бонсай
Бонсай – это техника выращивания растения, зародившаяся в Японии очень давно. Буквально переводится как «растение на подносе». By definition, this is a miniature ornamental tree. There is a whole method for its creation.
Ficus Bonsai does not belong to varieties, it is formed from the ficus of Benjamin in a special way. This is a very difficult and very time-consuming process! During the growth periodically it is necessary to trim the roots and pinch the tops. Getting the balance between the crown and rhizome, the tree is given the necessary form. Ficus Natasha, Nicole, Nina, Wandi, Baroque are best suited for such purposes.
Fine rubber mica ficus
His second name is Ficus Elastica. This plant is very popular and is in many homes. Such universal love is caused by its extraordinary beauty. In addition, it is unpretentious in the care.
Rubber-lined ficuses are dark green in color, but sometimes they are decorated with a yellow border.
The most popular types are:
- dark green leaves: Abidjan, Melanie, Rabusta, Shriveriana,
- leaves with yellow border: Belize, Tineke, Tricolor.
It has several varieties that differ in the shape and color of the leaves. Especially spectacular varieties with yellow spots and stripes on the leaves. Some varieties branch well, have a rather compact form, others reluctantly form side shoots and tend to grow upwards.
At home, the ficus rubber milling is undemanding to air humidity and tolerates a lack of light.
We advise you to pay special attention to the proper watering and care for growing shoots, which can reach several meters and fancifully bent. It is necessary to form the crown in a timely manner, tying up the stems or periodically pruning and rooting them.
Ficus Ali (bindendika) Ficus binnendijkii ‘Alii’
Ali is the most popular variety of ficus binnendik Ficus binnendijkii, which is also known as “willow ficus”. The leaves of this ficus in shape really resemble willow, but this is a popular name, not a botanical one.
With good care, Ficus Ali at home reaches 1.5 m in height and about 70-80 cm in diameter. You should not put this ficus on the floor: firstly, it is dark, the lower part of the trunk will begin to bare, secondly, it is always colder on the floor, the earth in the pot dries longer and the roots can rot if it is too abundant.
Ficus lyrate Ficus lirata
Ficus lyric Ficus lirata - is distinguished by its large leaves, similar in shape to an inverted violin. Its leaves reach a length of 50-60 cm. Loves loneliness, do not put it close to other plants.
This ficus is not often seen in flower shops, but it is wonderful - leathery leaves, pointing up, have an interesting shape. The ficus itself grows slowly, with good care is not exposed to the bottom. A real decoration of a spacious office or hall. Ficus is lyrate at home, it is difficult to branch, often grows in one trunk, at the age of 4-5 years it can produce side shoots.
Dwarf ficus Ficus pumila
Fast-growing, small-leaved ficus, completely different from all other types of ficus. You can grow it as an ampelous plant, you can tie it to a support, so that it stretches upwards.
The main care for the ficus is tying a support, timely transplanting and watering, fertilizing fertilizers. The flower responds well to a hot shower, as prevention from ticks.
How to independently care for the ficus
With proper care, this houseplant grows quickly and reaches 2-3 meters in height. The growth rate is about 20 centimeters per year.
The plant needs about 3 months to adapt and take root in the new conditions. After this, the care of Benjamin's ficus, as well as for rubber, as a rule, does not require much effort.
The key to successful adaptation
Before you decide to bring a ficus home, you should carefully select a place of permanent residence for him in advance. Try to observe several important conditions:
- direct rays of the sun should not harm the tree,
- no need to put it next to the batteries,
- humidity in the room should be average, but in no case not low,
- draft is contraindicated.
From the first day start to spray your flower. Always check the soil moisture in the pot.
Read more about how to care for the ficus, read on.
Consider the main components of proper care for this indoor plant:
- The soil. The soil must be breathable, slightly acidic, fertile, moist. Natural fertilizers can be added to the soil. It is necessary to ensure good drainage: it is better to make the lower layer of expanded clay, and the top one - of sand,
- Lighting. These plants are very light-loving, so a bright place in your apartment is ideal for them. Avoid exposure to direct sunlight, especially at lunchtime. It is best to put a ficus pot on the window that does not go south or east. It is feasible to survive the temporary lack of light to the ficus, but its leaves will noticeably fade. In winter, it is necessary to highlight the plant, because in case of insufficient illumination, the ficus of Benjamin drops leaves. Also, you can not often rearrange the plant in order to avoid one-sided dropping of leaves,
- Room temperature. The optimum temperature in the summer should be within 18-25 degrees, in winter - not colder than 16-18 degrees. When keeping ficus in a cool room, it is necessary to reduce its watering. In the dry state, the plant can withstand temperatures up to 10 degrees above zero,
- Watering. Water the ficus preferably regularly in moderation. In the summer months, do it 2-3 times a week. In early September, watering should start gradually to reduce, so that by winter the irrigation schedule was 1 time per week. The ficus flower does not like excessive soil moisture, and its drying. However, before the next watering the ground still needs to be slightly dried. In addition, periodically the soil should be loosened, so that it dries better. From excessive moisture in ficus can rot the roots, then he will throw off a lot of leaves. Water your tree only with separated and soft water at a temperature not colder than room temperature. Do not forget sometimes to spray the leaves from the spray,
- Top dressing. Top dressing should be carried out in spring and summer, 2 times a month. For her, it is preferable to use natural fertilizers (for example, wood ash, nettle infusion). Before dressing the plant should be watered so as not to burn its roots. You can also spray leaves with fertilizer solution. In winter, ficus can also be fed, but with the obligatory condition of having additional lighting and no more than 1 time per month.
Learn to transplant ficuses correctly
Young ficuses are transplanted annually in the spring to a new land. Plants that have reached the age of 4 can be transplanted once every 2 years, and each year it is sufficient to simply add fresh earth to the pot.
The soil for ficus transplantation at home should be nutritious and loose.
If the earth in the pot dries quickly, then the roots have little space and nutrients, therefore, it is time to transplant the plant. After a transplant, it may shed its leaves, or its growth will slow down somewhat. It is in the order of things, because with an increase in space, the roots grow more slowly. Over time, new leaves will appear, and the growth rate will accelerate.
How to transplant ficus:
- It must be watered so that it is easier to remove,
- Remove the earth layer
- Pour drainage into a new container and sprinkle with earth,
- Transfer the plant to a new pot,
- Coat the roots evenly with earth,
- Pour over water.
Breeding methods and their features
Many fans of indoor plants are wondering how to propagate the ficus correctly. In total there are 2 ways:
Cuttings are stem and leaf-bud. They must be planted in a container with water, and after 2 weeks the roots appear in the cuttings. After that they can be planted in a pot.
Air layouts. The second method is reproduction of ficus by air layering:
- Choose your escape, remove some leaves from it,
- Make a circular cut,
- Insert a piece of wood into the incision, then attach wet moss and wrap cling film,
- When the roots sprout, separate this part and transplant it into another container.
What if a plant drops leaflets
Leaves may fall off for various reasons. Ficus Benjamin, for example, does it much more often than his fellows. Why this happens and what to do if the ficus sheds leaves:
- Natural leaf dropping. In the fall and winter, shedding the lower leaves is a natural process. If the leaf fall occurs in the warm season, the irrigation regime is most likely disturbed or the plant does not have enough light.
- Changing the usual conditions. Ficus reacts painfully to changes in location, temperature or light,
- Over-watering. It is necessary to eliminate adverse factors, and then the leaf fall will stop,
- Nutrient Shortage. It is advisable to transplant a ficus or do it feeding,
- Diseases and parasites. It is necessary to treat the plant with special chemicals to eliminate pests.
Do not be afraid if leaves fall at the ficus Benjamin. First of all, it is necessary to identify the cause of this and immediately eliminate it. But the rubber-bearing ficus, in contrast to Benjamin, is more adapted to domestic life and much less likely to fall down.
- Fungus on the leaves. Manifested by small black spots and eventually leads to the death of the leaves,
- Gray rot. Manifested in the form of gray mold on the leaves and stem with moisture or excessive heat in the room. If you shake the sheets, the mold will fly off, and you will notice a dusty cloud. In such a case, it is necessary to remove the affected areas, water the plant less often and air the room more often.
- Black mushroom. Characterized by a gray bloom on the leaves. To get rid of it, it is necessary to process the sheets with a soapy sponge. And with abundant damage, it is better to remove them altogether,
- Root rot. Ficus becomes gray and fade. Alas, it is impossible to cure the roots. No matter how pitiful, but have to throw the plant along with the pot.
Very often pests attack ficuses, striking completely different parts of the flower. In many cases, to save the plant fails, and it dies.
To avoid bad consequences, regularly carry out disease prevention, often spray with water and wash the leaves.
So, the types of parasites that can cause harm to the ficus:
- Aphid. Affected leaves turn yellow. It is necessary to wash them with soapy water.
- Thrips. It leaves dark brown spots. This insect spreads viruses. Chemical processing is indispensable.
- Shchitovka. Brown bulging spots. Process with soapy water, then several times with chemicals,
- Mealybug. It looks like pieces of cotton, where pests live. Spray the plant with water and chemicals
- Nematodes. At the roots appear growths like beads. Spray with chemicals
- Spider mite. The parasite sucks the juice from the leaves of ficus. Leaves gray spots. It is necessary to cover the plant with a film, after a few days, spray with infusion of garlic.
- Dying leaves. Most often associated with parasites. Therefore, the first thing you need to do is their destruction,
- Leaf fall or color change. Occurs when the plant lacks minerals and various nutrients. Saved by a transplant to a more fertile land. When the flower is too much moisture, its leaves are covered with yellow spots. At elevated temperatures in the room brown spots appear on the leaves,
- Yellow leaves. This problem is most common in the winter when the air is dry. Spray ficus often to avoid yellowing.
Causes of the onset and development of diseases
Thus, we can distinguish the following causes of the development of ficus diseases:
- Insufficient lighting, especially in winter. Growth slows down, leaves fall and turn yellow. Remarkably, the ficuses with dark green leaves are less demanding on light than on light ones,
- Unsuitable temperature or sudden changes in temperature. This affects the decorative appearance of the plant. It begins to lose leaves and wither,
- Draft. Ficus does not tolerate drafts. So he can begin to fall leaves and dry stems,
- Excessive watering. If the top layer does not dry out for a long time, the tops of the shoots die off, an unpleasant smell of rot from the soil appears, the leaves fade and fall off,
- Insufficient watering. With an insufficient amount of water, the leaves dry up, curl up and ficus leaves fall. The branches are dry and brittle, and the ground is detached from the pot,
- Excess fertilizer. Do not abuse fertilizers and violate their dosage. Root burns can occur if the plant is fertilized with dry soil.
Make sure that the leaves do not have deformations, damage, stains and pests. Any changes are not good. Always remember that the causes of the disease are best identified in advance in order to be able to take action on time.
It is important to periodically inspect the flower and clean the dried leaves.. In difficult situations, it is better to completely replace the ground, cut off the old rotten roots, transplant into a smaller pot.
Most often, the causes of the disease are caused by a lack of attention to the ficus by the hosts. If you care about your pet and carry out proper care for ficus at home, it will long delight you with its well-groomed appearance.
Ficus: types, photos and names
Beautiful evergreen ficus plant belongs to the mulberry family. Growing in nature in New Guinea, Southeast Asia and the Solomon Islands plants can be both trees and shrubs. Depending on the species, ficuses can have green or bicoloured leaves up to 70 cm in size. Small flowers of the plant are located on simplified perianths.
In nature, ficuses can grow up to 40 meters in length, and their stem diameter can reach 5 meters. There are climbing and climbing plants. There are more than 1000 varieties of ficus. However, in the home grown much less. The ficuses known in amateur floriculture will be discussed today in our article.
Popular types of ficus
The rubber plant ficus is one of the most popular and unpretentious species of this genus of mulberry plants. is he different weakly branching trunkwhich at home can reach two meters. The leathery and glossy elliptical leaves at the tip are slightly tapered. The greyish green crown of the tree is rough and speckled with horizontal grooves.
In humid rooms, the tree gives aerial roots. This type of ficus has different varieties, which mainly differ in the colors of the leaves:
- Variety "Black Prince" - a plant with black leaves.
- Grade "Doecheri" is characterized by the presence of pink spots and red vein in the middle of the sheet.
- Variety "Variegata" has beautiful green leaves, along the edges of which is cream edging.
- Variety "Robusta" is a plant with large, glossy leaves, rich green color.
- Benjamin's ficus is an evergreen tree with thin shoots in nature. can grow to 10-20 meters. At home, the bush reaches a height of three meters. The gray-beige branched crown of the plant has the correct forms. The oblong sheets are 5–20 cm in length, and 2–5 cm in width. They can be monochromatic or two-colored, have an oval, ovoid or spiral shape. The crown of the tree is so thick that sometimes because of it the trunk is not visible.
- Thanks to the air roots growing on their shoots, you can make beautiful binders and give the tree unusual shapes.
- Creeping ficus is a miniature creeping shrub characterized by long stems, on which additional roots are formed. On the green surface of its heart-shaped hard leaves there is a mesh pattern of yellow hue. Thanks to its suckers, the plant can grow on trees or supports.
- Ficus dwarf or Pumila White It is a vine with long, creeping shoots. Asymmetrical leaves have an oval-cordate form and are located on stems 5 cm thick. The rough and wrinkled surface of the leaves is covered with a reticular pattern. The plant completely covers the soil with a carpet, growing to the ground with its numerous roots.
- Ficus lyre is distinguished by large leaves of light green color. In young plants, they are covered with wax, and in shape resemble the silhouette of a violin. Each leaf in length reaches 60 cm, and in width - 30 cm. Green leaves with a white speck in the middle have a pronounced vein. Erect stem of a plant in nature grows up to 12 m.
- Ficus Rubiginosis or Rusty is a small spreading tree with shoots of red hue. In the lower part of the crown, aerial roots are formed, and bright pink pubescent buds grow at the top of the tree. Quite large leaves of the plant are dark green on top and on the underside are reddish-brown.
- Ficus raznostolistny its name was due to the fact that on its branches you can see the leaves of completely different forms. The shrub growing to one meter has a tree-like stem and leathery leaves. On their dark green background can be placed brown spots. The shrub bears fruits resembling olives berries, which in no case can not be taken in food.
- Ficus Melanie in Indonesia is considered a sacred tree. The young plant has an underdeveloped crown. Ствол растения покрывают кожистые, эллиптические темно-зеленые листья и достающие до земли воздушные корни. В домашних условиях растение не цветет, но образует плоды-сикониумы.
- Фикус Карика или инжир комнатный – это небольшого размера листопадный кустарник с раскидистой кроной. It is distinguished by a brown-gray thick trunk and jagged leaves of irregular shape. Each leaf is covered with light yellow or white veins. With proper care at home, you can achieve flowering and fruiting figs. The flowers of the plant are barely noticeable, but the fruits or wine berries resemble spherical stems. In the fall, this type of ficus can shed its leaves.
Houseplants are unpretentious, so very popular and loved by growers. Caring for ficus at home is a good light, regular and proper watering and a suitable temperature. However, some nuances of cultivation, especially some plant species, are still available.
The best option for placing ficuses is a well-lit place without direct sunlight. A small plant can be put on the western or eastern sill, and a tall bush or tree can be placed on the floor or stand near the window. Pushing the plant into the room is not recommended. In the shade the bush will slow down the growth and throw off the leaves.
In the warm period of time, ficuses can be placed on the loggia or balcony, arranging them so that direct sunlight does not fall on the plant. In winter, light-loving plants suffer from a short daylight, so it is recommended to highlight them a few hours a day.
Watering and water treatments
When caring for ficus requires regular watering, which depends on the humidity and temperature in the room. The plant is watered only after the top layer of the earth mixture dries out. Too frequent watering can lead to decay of the root system. Also it is necessary to watch that in the pallet water did not accumulate.
In the dry period twice a month it is recommended to bathe ficuses under a shower, having previously covered the soil with a waterproof film. In the absence of the soul, the leaves of the plant can be periodically cleaned first with a dry cloth and then with a wet cloth.
To leaves the tree rich green color, experienced flower growers wipe them with a special solution:
- two tablespoons of mayonnaise are diluted in half a glass of water,
- dry and clean cloth moistened in the resulting solution,
- leaves are rubbed until complete removal of dirt and dust.
When caring for ficus at home, top dressing is done only in summer. Use for this alternately recommended mineral and organic fertilizers. Plants are fed every ten days.
In winter, when there is little light and heatFertilizers do not apply.. But for a good state of health of the plant, you can feed tea leaves, digging a small amount of them into the ground.
Transplantation and soil for ficuses
Young, actively growing plants need a transplant every year. Old trees and bushes are transplanted once every few years. This should be done in order to update the soured and settled soil.
For transplanting, a neutral or slightly acidic soil for ficus can be sold at flower shops. Young plants need a specific soil mixture that can to make equal parts:
Mature trees are transplanted into denser soil, therefore humus and sod land is added to the mixture.
About a day before planting the plants are watered. For young bushes new pots should be about 2 cm more than the previous ones. At the bottom of the tank, drainage is poured first, and only then a small layer of soil. A plant pulled out of an old pot with an earthy ball installed in a new container and powdered with primer.
Growing Ficus Benjamin
A small tree with small leaves requires more attention and a certain care. Otherwise, leaves begin to fall off of it, and the plant becomes completely bald.
Ficus benjamina in nature lives in conditions of high humidity, so it does not tolerate too bright lighting and dry air. Therefore, it is recommended to grow it away from direct sunlight, and spray it several times a day. A very good option for increasing the humidity would be to use a special humidifier.
If all the same ficus Benjamin the leaves began to fall off, the reason may be:
- Acclimatization of plants to new growing conditions.
- Watering with cold water.
- Lack of light.
- Uncomfortable temperature for the plant (above 23 ° C or below 17 ° C).
- Drafts and sudden changes in temperature.
- Dry air.
- Excessive or insufficient soil moisture.
All these reasons for caring for Benjamin Ficus should be eliminated. The plant is put on a bright place. away from sunlight and drafts, regularly watered, sprayed and fed. Also, do not forget to periodically loosen the soil in a pot and annually transplant a young plant.
Ficus breeding at home
The simplest and most common method of breeding ficus is grafting.
To obtain cuttings in spring, shoots are cut from the bush under the lower node, on which there should be at least 2-3 leaves. The bottom sheet is removed, the cut is washed, and the cutting is placed in wet sand or water. The length of the plant is sprayed abundantly and covered with a clear plastic bottle or another cap. As such, the cuttings are placed in a warm, shaded place, and are ventilated daily. As soon as the plant gives roots and begins to grow, it can be safely planted in a pot filled with an earthy mixture.
As a cutting you can take a large leaf of ficus, cutting it together with the heel. A rolled sheet is rooted in wet peat or sand. Next to it for stability establish support. The leaf is sprayed and covered with a bulb.
During rooting it is necessary to air the cutting and moisten the peat. After the appearance of the roots landed in a small pot. As the plants grow, they are transplanted into large pots.
Real lovers of ficus care for a pet at home is considered quite easy. Performing only a few conditions, you can admire all year round the beautiful greenery of a small bush or a magnificent and spectacular adult tree.
Content at home
All types of ficuses love bright places, but too bright rays of the sun can damage their leaves. The corner should be slightly shaded so that the plant does not languish under the scorching sun. Motley species are more resistant to the sun, monochromatic green prefer partial shade. Choose a permanent place, without turns and permutations, all types of ficus do not like it.
Temperature: The plant prefers natural conditions. The optimum summer temperature is 22-26 degrees, in winter 16-20 degrees, but not lower than 13-15 degrees. For ficuses extremely dangerous drafts.
- Watering: Any type requires regular watering - this is a prerequisite for their maintenance. Broadleaf species are watered less frequently.
- Small-leaved small surface roots that absorb moisture only from the surface layer of the soil, and he, as you know, dries quickly.
- In summer, watering is increased a little, in winter, especially with a decrease in temperature, it is reduced.
- Exception ampelous species requiring constant abundant watering.
Watering ficus - a delicate and responsible work. A dried earthen room leads to yellowing and falling leaves, too wet substrate - contributes to the decay of the root neck and the appearance of pests. In the end result, the ficus will drop the leaves and a high probability of death.
Water used defended a few hours, or soft, rainy.
A prerequisite is the presence of drainage from expanded clay in the pot and several openings for the release of excess moisture.
- Humidity: If the air in the room is too dry, you will have to constantly spray the leaves with water, otherwise your tropical guest will die.
- Most species of ficus prefer high humidity with regular spraying in the hot period with soft water, otherwise white spots will appear on the surface of the leaf plate.
- Ficus responds well to a summer shower. Water is used at room temperature, or 2-4 degrees higher.
- Top dressing: 2 times a month, ficuses are fertilized with mineral and organic fertilizers, starting in spring and ending with the first cold snap.
- In winter, the plant does not need additional feed.
- For ficuses of large sizes, purchased granular fertilizers are suitable.
Soil: If you buy soil, you must choose a slightly acidic, or neutral, with a pH of 5.5-6.5.
For self-preparation you need: peat, sand and leaf earth taken in the same proportions. For larger specimens, turf is added (2 hours). In order to avoid rotting of the roots, a layer of expanded clay, or household shards as a drainage is placed on the bottom, and pieces of charcoal are introduced into the soil.
- Ficus with thick trunks prefer a dry climate and rocky soils. It is necessary to add small pebbles or broken bricks to the ready ground.
- Transplanting: For young plants, transplantation is required annually in the spring, adult rubber plants are extremely sensitive and are transplanted as needed if the pot is too small and the roots creep out to the surface.
- Often they do the transshipment, or every year they renew the upper layer of soil more nutritious. During transplantation of young plants, you can add a little rotted manure.
- Lack of good drainage leads to rotting of the roots.
- Reproduction: Ficus multiply in several ways: cuttings, seeds and air outlets. The first is the easiest and most popular.
Seeds: In early spring, seeds are sown in flat dishes in the ground of leafy earth and sand in the same proportions. Top cover with a glass jar, or placed in a mini greenhouse. Constantly keep high humidity with regular airing.
After some time, the first shoots will appear, on reaching 2-3 leaves, they dive into separate containers. As soon as the young shoots get stronger, they are re-transplanted into pots using a substrate for adult plants.
From spring to autumn, slightly below the leaf, a small vertical incision of 5 mm is made.
Using a match, pre-moistened with a growth stimulator, is inserted into the incision so that it does not close. Top wrapped with moss and covered with foil. Moss is constantly kept wet. After a few months, the roots will appear. The scape with the resulting root is cut a little lower and put in a small container with the ground.
Cuttings. One or two summer shoots are suitable. They are cut off in early spring before blooming buds, 10-15 cm long and planted in light soil from leafy ground and river sand. Pre-cutting is placed in water until the discharge of white juice stops. Some types of ficus (Benjamin, rubber) are well rooted in water. From above the container is covered with a glass jar, regularly ventilated. Constantly keep a humid climate. Medium temperature - 25 degrees. The stalk will quickly sprout, after about 1-1.5 months, then it will be planted in a pot.
When using thick shoots, for better rooting, make an incision below (disintegrate). When watering, water should not fall on the leaf plates.
You can root the cuttings in peat tablets, where the time of appearance of the roots is significantly reduced.
Wintering: Often, ficuses shed their leaves through insufficient lighting and reducing the temperature. Some species need to consciously reduce the temperature of the content during the resting period. Since October-November, the ficus significantly slows down its growth and only from spring resumes it. Bottle species are watered very rarely and in small amounts of water.
Pests: ficus can infect the scale, mealybug, thrips, spider mite. Often associated with a violation of the mode of irrigation, or temperature.
- Scutellum - brown spots 2-3 mm. Eat the sap of the plant, leaving a sticky patina. For destruction, the ficus is treated with a solution of Actellic 3-4 times, with an interval of 10 days.
- Aphid - sometimes it is damaged by a ficus, especially young shoots. For the destruction of any suitable drugs - insecticides.
- Mealybug - white small insects resembling white down. They feed on sap from the leaves and stem. In the middle of the fluff are small brown pests. It is necessary to process twice with a solution of confidor, with an interval of 10 days.
- Spider mite - appears when the climate is dry and high temperature. Mite bites into the leaves while drinking the juice. Leaves wither and dry. Any preparations, mechanical washing off of the leaves are suitable, or for several days cover the ficus with plastic wrap.
- Mealy dew - a raid of white color. Appears when there is insufficient fresh air. Ventilate the room more. The crown is treated with a solution of fungicide. With a large lesion, the leaf plates are removed to avoid spreading the fungus.
- Sooty fungus - appears only due to the defeat of ficus pests. Black fungus occurs on the discharge of harmful insects.
- Whitetails are white insects. Favorable environment - constantly wet soil without the possibility of drying. First, the entire pot is placed in a basin with water several times, until white pests emerge. Then the soil is well dried, check the drainage system and in the future slightly reduce the intensity of irrigation.
- Nematodes: tiny worms affecting ficus roots. Emit toxic substances from their livelihoods. According to the root system, toxins enter the stems and leaves, and the plant subsequently dries out.
Difficulties in growing
- Yellowing the leaves, slowing the growth, new leaves are small - there is not enough nutrients in the soil, fertilize, or transplant to a new substrate.
- The leaves turn yellow and fall - lack of moisture, too dry earthen clod.
- Leaves fall - insufficient, or an excess of watering, the water is too cold, climate change, or the situation (moving ficus from one place to another adversely affects growth), not enough light, a sharp drop in temperature, the presence of drafts.
- The fall of the lower layer of leaves. Often the ficuses really shed the bottom layer, but in the presence of new, young, or if the leaves are really old. In other cases, it is: a lack of nutrients, an untimely transplant, or the pot is too small for the root system.
- The sheet plate twists and shrinks - dry humidity in the room, or lack of moisture in the soil. Especially for ampelous species.
- Brown tips on the leaves - the temperature exceeds 25 degrees with a dry climate habitat, or an excess of fertilizer. Lyre-like ficus and dwarf, very thinly feel the dry soil and immediately begin to dry shoots with leaves.
- Dark, brown spots and wrinkling of leaves - getting sunburn.
Do not neglect these tips, because the ficus not only decorates your apartment, but also perfectly cleans the air, absorbing harmful substances from it.